Thursday, August 29, 2013

Seraphim of Sarov (1754-1833)

"The most Holy Roman Church firmly believes, professes and preaches that none of those existing outside the Catholic Church, not only pagans, but also Jews and heretics and schismatics, can have a share in life eternal; but that they will go into the eternal fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels, unless before death they are joined with Her; and that so important is the unity of this ecclesiastical body that only those remaining within this unity can profit by the sacraments of the Church unto salvation, and they alone can receive an eternal recompense for their fasts, their almsgivings, their other works of Christian piety and the duties of a Christian soldier. No one, let his almsgiving be as great as it may, no one, even if he pour out his blood for the Name of Christ, can be saved, unless he remain within the bosom and the unity of the Catholic Church" -- Pope Eugene IV at the Ecumenical Council of Florence, Bull "Cantate Domino"

"No man can find salvation except in the Catholic Church. Outside the Catholic Church one can have everything except salvation. One can have honor, one can have the sacraments, one can sing alleluia, one can answer amen, one can have faith in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, and preach it too, but never can one find salvation except in the Catholic Church" -- St. Augustine the Great of Hippo, Sermon to the People of the Church of Caesarea, 6 (Patrologia Latina 43:695), qtd. in John Randolph Willis, The Teachings of the Church Fathers (Ignatius Press, 2002), 60 <https://books.google.com/books?id=leoK-f67rsYC&pg=PA60#v=onepage&q&f=false>. Latin: "Extra Ecclesiam catholicam totum potest praeter salutem. Potest habere honorem, potest habere Sacramenta, potest cantare Alleluia, potest respondere Amen, potest Evangelium tenere, potest in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus sancti fidem habere et praedicare: sed nusquam nisi in Ecclesia catholica salutem poterit invenire."

Pope St. John Paul II the Great of Rome, Crossing the Threshold of Hope (New York: Random House, 1994), 17-18 <https://books.google.com/books?id=feAMAAAAQBAJ&pg=17#v=onepage&q&f=false>: "Much has been written about prayer, and further, prayer has been widely experienced in the history of mankind, especially in the history of Israel and Christianity. Man achieves the fullness of prayer not when he expresses himself, but when he lets God be most fully present in prayer. The history of mystical prayer in the East and West attests to this: Saint Francis, Saint Teresa of Avila, Saint John of the Cross, Saint Ignatius of Loyola, and, in the East, for example, Saint Seraphim of Sarov and many others."


Pope St. John Paul II the Great of Rome, Apostolic Visit to Azerbaijan and Bulgaria, Pilgrimage to the Holy Monastery of Rila (3/25/2002): "Having been enabled to see the world through God’s eyes, and become ever more configured to Christ, religious men and women move towards the ultimate end for which man was created: divinization, sharing in the life of the Trinity. Grace makes this possible only to those who — through prayer, tears of compunction and charity — open themselves to the Holy Spirit, as we are reminded by another great monk of these beloved Slav lands, Seraphim of Sarov (cf. Colloquio con Motovilov III, in P. Evdokimov, Serafim di Sarov, Uomo dello Spirito, Bose 1996, pp. 67-81)." <http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/speeches/2002/may/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_20020525_rila-bulgaria.html>

Louis Monden, S.J., Signs and Wonders: A Study of the Miraculous Element in Religion (New York: Desclée, 1966), 306-307: "Let us study, for instance, the life of St. Seraphim of Sarov (died in 1833), the greatest miracle-worker of the 19th century. His biography, no doubt, presents an impressive number of facts which any Catholic would readily recognize as proofs of a supernatural intervention of God. He would, however, recognize just as readily that none of them qualifies as a major miracle, that is, one with an intrinsic apologetic value and of the kind we have so far found absent everywhere except in the Catholic Church. There are two particularly striking instances among the cures attributed to him: the cases of Michael Manturov and Judge Nikolai Motovilov. Both are cases of functional paralysis, which, judging by the way the illness and the manner of the cure are described, could have been cured, medically speaking, through spontaneous psychotherapy with religious motivation. At the Lourdes Bureau cases like these would not even be considered."

Martin Jugie, A.A., Le schisme byzantin, aperçu historique et doctrinal (Paris, P. Lethielleux, 1941), 447-460, esp. 457:

En 1903, la canonisation de l’ascète Séraphin de Sarov († 1833) fut due déjà a la violenté expresse de l’empereur Nicolas II et de sa femme l’impératrice Alexandra Féodorovna, malgré un obstacle qui paraissant insurmontable. Le corps de Séraphin, en effet, n’avait pas été trouvé conservé. Or, le grande miracle qui est à l’origine de la plupart des canonisations historiques est l’incorruption du cadavre. Lorsque l’historien Golubinskii, dans l’ouvrage signalé plus haut, prétendit que cette marquée de sainteté n’était pas obligatoire, la censure ecclésiastique le mit à l’index.1 Mais sous la pression du tsar, et surtout de la tsarine, l’opposition des milieux ecclésiastiques cessa. La condamnation portée contre l’ouvrage de Goloubinskii fut levée et l’on procéda solennellement, en 1903, à la canonisation du saint anachorète, célèbre par ses exploits ascétiques, son oraison, ses visions extatiques et ses enseignements spirituels.2 Cette canonisation, qui ressemblait à un coup de force de l’autorité impériale, fit scandale en Russie. En tout cas, il faut la considérer comme une exception dans l’histoire des canonisations russes officielles.

... 1. La famille impériale attribuait des grâces de guérison déjà l’attouchement du manteau du saint anachorète. L’impératrice insista pour le faire canoniser, espérant obtenir par son intercession la naissance d’un fils. Elle put bientôt se croire exaucée. Exactement un an après la canonisation de Séraphin, elle émit au monde le tsarévitch Alexis.
Albert Michel, "Sainteté," Dictionnaire de théologie catholique (Paris, Letouzey et Ané, 1939), 14.1:####: "Il y ajoute celui de Seraphin de Serov, moine russe,modele de haute perfection dans l'Eglise orthodoxe. Ces cas, quelle que puisse etre l'appreciation exacte à porter sur le degre de sainteté qu'ils comportent, ne sont pas à nier. Si l' axiome : "Hors de l'Eglise, pas de salut », ne nons autorise pas à nier Ia possibilite du salut a ceux qui paraissent vivre hors de l'Eglise, ainsi en est-il du jugement a porter sur Ia sainteté qui, à ses degres divers, est Ia condition essentielle du salut. Si l'homme peut, meme sans Ie sacrement de baptême, assurer son salut eternel en appartenant simplement à l'ame et, par Ie desir au moins implicite, au corps de l'Eglise, ainsi pourra-t-il, surtout s'il est baptise et s'il a Je secours des sacrements validement reçus, vivre de la vie de Ia grace et meme en vivre abondamment. ... D'ailleurs, la Providence veille, semble-t-il, ace que ces cas exceptionnels de sainteté supérieure et héroïque se manifestent toujours en des personnages attires vers l'Eglise romaine. Sundar Singh déclinait positivement l'appartenance à toute confession particulière. Ses vertus ne sauraient donc autoriser aucune confession non catholique : elles valent par ce que valent les principes de vie spirituelle qui les ont inspires. La sainteté d'un Séraphin de Sarov est une sainteté empruntée, apparentée à la sainteté catholique. Prés d'elle allaient se retremper des âmes cherchant des leçons de vie meilleure, la paix de la conscience, une aide contre les tentations de l'esprit et de la chair. Ceux qui auraient été tentes d'aller plus avant et de s'inquiéter de la véritable Eglise du Christ auraient trouve dans la fréquentation d'une telle sainteté un motif, non de se fixer dans l'hétérodoxie, mais de se rapprocher de l'Eglise romaine, dont les prérogatives « leur apparaitraient d'autant mieux, qu'ils auraient commence de gouter le Maitre. » En examinant avec soin la sainteté de l'ermite de Sarov, on constate qu’elle relève per se des principes formules dans la seule Eglise catholique : "Les différences, dit excellemment le P. de Grandmaison, portent sur des modalités par lesquelles  l'Esprit s'adapte et s’attempère à des races diverses; pour le fond, et, plus manifestement encore pour l'élément de choix et de discréation qui juge et hiérarchisé les opérations de la vie spirituelle supérieure, un fidèle catholique peut presque dire : «  Tout est nôtre! … »"

Aidan Nichols, O.P., Rome and the Eastern Churches (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2010), 134: "Again, Catholics of the Byzantine rite do, I believe, commemorate saints canonized by the Orthodox during the period of schism, and even dedicate parish churches to them, like the one recently erected under the patronage of Seraphim of Sarov (a nineteenth century Russian hermit) in Toronto, Canada, but I have not heard of Uniate veneration of an Orthodox saint instrumental in the making or continuance of schism, such as the fifteenth century Greek bishop Mark of Ephesus." Fr. Nichols's book was first published in 1992. For more info on the parish in question see <http://www.byzcath.org/forums/ubbthreads.php/topics/45221/St%20Seraphim%20of%20Sarov%20Catholic>.

-Seraphim's conversation with Nicholas Motovilov (http://orthodoxinfo.com/praxis/wonderful.aspx):

-2007 Ruthenian Typicon for Tuesday, January 2: "In the Russian Church, the Venerable and God-bearing Father Seraphim, Wonderworker of Sarov." For more info on this Typicon, see http://web.archive.org/web/20081221115757/http://www.patronagechurch.com/Typicon/typicon.htm.

-Servant of God Catherine Doherty (Ekaterina Fyodorovna Kolyschkine de Hueck Doherty: Madonna House Apostolate foundress) [8/15/1896-12/14/1985] - "She had a great love, of course, forthe saints of Holy Russia (she had an icon of St. Seraphim of Sarov over her bed)" -- Fr. Robert Wild, Catherine Doherty, Servant of God: The Signifiance of Her Life for the Church, and the Present State of Her Cause for Canonization (Combermere, Ontario, Canada: Madonna House Publications, 2005) 47 <http://www.catherinedoherty.org/pdf/Robert_Wild_-_Catherine_Doherty_Servant_of_God.pdf>; see also <http://www.catherinedoherty.org/articles/2004/09/does-the-orthodox-church-canonize-people/> and note that Catherine was also a fan of the writings of Silouan the Athonite <http://www.catherinedoherty.org/articles/2011/11/catherine-and-the-russian-religious-renaissance/>

-At St. Michael's Russian Catholic Church (266 Mulberry Street, New York, NY  10012) there is an icon of Seraphim of Sarov and he is commemorated as a saint in a liturgical setting on January 14. This parish links to <http://www.catholic.ru/kalend/index.html> as the official Russian Catholic calendar; I cannot track down any archived copies of January at <https://web.archive.org/web/20030412122807*/http://www.catholic.ru/kalend/index.html>

-The encyclopedia at the Russian Catholic website lists Seraphim as a saint with a feast day of January 14; see <http://catholic.ru/modules.php?name=Encyclopedia&op=content&tid=2140> and the English translation at <https://translate.google.com/translate?sl=ru&tl=en&js=y&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fcatholic.ru%2Fmodules.php%3Fname%3DEncyclopedia%26op%3Dcontent%26tid%3D2140&edit-text=>

-Fr. Raniero Cantalamessa, O.F.M. Cap., Preacher to the Papal Household, Penitential liturgy for the Roman Curia in preparation for the Jubilee, Meditation (2/21/2000): "I must confess, I too have asked me this question, but I have given up thinking on this line further, because it is too easy to determine the sins of others or an institution, which one does not belong to himself. But it is at least in this context, completely unnecessary, because that is anyone helped. Anyone on you approach to defending itself first of all, and rightly so. I always think of a maxim of St. Seraphim of Sarov: "It is easy to preach against the guilt of others; that's like putting down throwing stones from a church tower. But it is difficult to tackle the own fault, that's like putting up wearing those stones from the bottom on his shoulders back to the top of the steeple." <http://www.vatican.va/jubilee_2000/jubilevents/jub_curia_20000221_cantalamessa_ge.html>; trans. <https://translate.google.com/translate?sl=de&tl=en&js=y&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.vatican.va%2Fjubilee_2000%2Fjubilevents%2Fjub_curia_20000221_cantalamessa_ge.html&edit-text=>

-Theologico-Historical Commission, "THE EARTH IS FILLED WITH YOU SPIRIT, LORD":
"This text, for now, intends to be an instrument of reflection and prayer, until the gift of the Spirit penetrates the life of every believer. According to the words of Jesus in fact, if the terrestrial father grants the prayers of his own children «how much more the Father in Heaven will give the Spirit to those who pray to him» (Lk 11, 13). Prayer is so important for the gift of the Spirit that there exists a variation of the Our Father, followed by many Fathers of the Church, where, at the point of the invocation «May your Kingdom come - we read - may your Spirit come unto us and purify us» (cf. Gregorio of Nissa, Homily on the Our Father, III, 6). It is in this prospective that we can understand, then, the words of a Russian saint of the last century, Serafino of Sarov (1833): «The true end of Christian life is the acquisition of the Holy Spirit. Prayer, fasting, vigils, charity, these are only means to acquire the Holy Spirit».
<http://www.vatican.va/jubilee_2000/magazine/documents/ju_mag_01091997_p-45_en.html>

-Eleuterio F. Fortino, Ecumenical Commission, "LIFE IN THE SPIRIT IN THE EASTERN AND WESTERN TRADITIONS":
A publication in St. Petersburg presented by Fr. Tecle Vetrali, professor at the Ecumenical Institute "San Bernardino" in Venice, could be taken as a synthesis of the symposium itself. It deals with an experience of communion started between the Patriarch of Moscow and the Franciscan Order of Brothers Minor. The professor said: «This fraternal relationship has exposed many affinities between the Orthodox and Franciscan spiritualities. The correspondence does not reduce to the psychological or cultural field. The communion is profound and touches the same roots of existence: it is born from the same Holy Spirit, who introduces us into communion with the one Christ and the one Father, illuminating us with the one Gospel». The title of the publication is: «Multiple experiences of the one Gospel. Testimonies of the Russian and Franciscan Spiritualities». The book was written by both Catholics and Orthodox and presents some eminent saints from both traditions: Sergio of Radonez, Serafino of Sarov, Elisabeth of Essen, Nicolas of Mira, Francis of Assisi, Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua. The biographies are preceded by a brief history and characterization of Russian monastic and Catholic Franciscan life. The relator concluded: «This book is presented as an exchange of gifts between two Churches and two spiritual traditions which yearn for communion and unity».

The division between Catholics and the Orthodox has in fact also contributed to a profound wound in the recognition of sanctity. The calendars of the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church are different, except for the saints common in the first century. In particular, the saints canonized after the division are absent. This aporia in veneration is based on theological presuppositions and necessitates a solution in the realm of establishing full communion. The ecclesial division has sliced into the communion of saints, at least in terms of their recognition for veneration. This makes the contradiction generated by the division more evident.


The relations which the Catholic Church has established with other Christians since the Second Vatican Council have, in addition to the growth of communion and fraternity, enabled us to discover what God is bringing about in the members of other Churches and ecclesial communities. The Holy Father has made a theological and spiritual elegy of this. «In a theocentric vision, we Christians already have a common Martyrology» (UUS, 84). In fact, «The witness to Christ borne even to the shedding of blood has become a common inheritance of Catholics, Orthodox, Anglicans and Protestants» (TMA, 37). Pope John Paul II desires that the «Christian testimony» given particularly in this century - in the time of Nazism, communism, dictatorships in various parts of the world - are not forgotten, but rather are recognized, are placed forward in such a way as to become examples to imitate. This has an ecumenical value which goes beyond its theological conceptualization. «Perhaps the most convincing form of ecumenism is the ecumenism of the saints and of the martyrs», affirms the Holy Father in the same place. «The communio sanctorum speaks louder than the things which divide us».
<http://www.vatican.va/jubilee_2000/magazine/documents/ju_mag_01111997_p-58_en.html>

Archimandrite Lazarus Moore, An Extraordinary Peace: St. Seraphim Flame of Sarov [a.k.a. Saint Seraphim of Sarov: A Spiritual Biography] (Anaphora Press, 2009), 238-239: "But if Father Seraphim spoke of the superiority of Orthodoxy to Old Ritualism, still more did he consider it superior to Roman Catholicism. 'He urged us,' we read in the Diveyev Chronicle, 'to stand firmly for the truth of the dogmas of the Orthodox Church, giving as an example St. Mark of Ephesus who showed unshakable zeal in defense of the Eastern Catholic [Orthodox] faith at the Council of Florence. He himself gave various instructions on Orthodoxy, explaining its essence and stressing that it alone contained the truth of Christ's faith in its integrity and purity. He also gave instructions as to how to defend it.'" Ibid. 242-243, on the vision allegedly experienced "in the early 1920’s, [by someone from] a noble family of Protestants in Alsace": "'Suddenly I saw [St.] Francis [of Assisi] himself coming towards me, and with him a little old man like a patriarch, bent but radiant,' she said indicating thereby his old age and venerable appearance. He was all in white. She felt frightened, but they came quite near her and Francis said; 'My daughter, you seek the true Church. It is there, where he is. It supports everyone, and does not require support from anyone.' The white Elder remained silent and only smiled approvingly at the words of Francis. … When she visited his room to see whether he was comfortably settled, she saw there a small Icon and recognized in it the Elder whom she had seen, in her light sleep, with Francis. Astonished and alarmed she asked: 'Who is he, that little old man?' 'St. Seraphim, our Orthodox saint,' answered the workman. Then she understood the meaning of the words of St. Francis about the truth being in the Orthodox Church."
Update 3/5/2016: I will try to find this in the Chronicles of :
(a) pre-1903: http://www.4udel.nne.ru/library/books/letopis
(b) 1903-1927: http://www.4udel.nne.ru/library/books/916/918

Wednesday, August 28, 2013

Metropolitan Gregory Tsamblak of Kiev (1414-1420)

-http://www.pravenc.ru/text/Григорий Цамблак.html

-Francis J. Thomson, Gregory Tsamblak - the Man and the Myths (Ghent: Ghent University, Dept. of Slavonic and East European Studies, 1998): http://books.google.com/books/about/Gregory_Tsamblak_the_Man_and_the_Myths.html?id=nNIkHQAACAAJ

-Muriel Heppell, The Ecclesiastic Career of Gregory Camblak (Verlag, 1979), 134 pp.: http://books.google.com/books/about/The_Ecclesiastic_Career_of_Gregory_Cambl.html?id=1OjDtgAACAAJ

-rival of the schismatic Metropolitan Photius of Kiev (1408-1431)


-Mgr. Julian Pelesz, Geschichte der Union der ruthenischen Kirche Mit Rome (Würzburg-Wien, 1881), vol. 1, 361-365 (PDF pages 373-377):
-In 1418 Gregory I Tsamblak submitted to Pope Martin V of Rome (1417-1431) at the 16th Ecumenical Council (Constance 1414-1418) [Joseph Gill, S.J., The Council of Florence (Cambridge University Press, 2011), 25-27].
-According to Fr. Martin Jugie, Theologia dogmatica christianorum orientalium ab ecclesia catholica dissidentium (Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 19##), vol. 4, 333, Gregory Tsamblak wrote a Catholic exposition of Our Lord's words "Thou art Peter..." (Mt 16:18):
Gregorius Tsamblacus, ex Serbia oriundus, qui metropolitan Kioviensis fuit, eodem fere sensu ac Catholici evangelicum textum Tu es Petrus interpretatur, Petrumque nuncupat fidei petram, regni clavigerum, orbis præfectum4. ...
4. Macarius Bulgakov, op. cit., t. V, p. 457-458.
-Francis Dvornik, The Slavs in European History and Civilization (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1962) 172: Gregory "composed, among other works, twenty-four homilies and a panegyric on Euthymius [Orthodox Patriarch of Trnovo and Bulgaria] and Cyprian [Orthodox Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus']. His biography of the Serbian king, Stephen Uroš II, deserves to be mentioned. The biography of St. Romil attributed to him was actually written by a hermit named Gregory."
Note: Stephen II professed papal primacy in his Profession of Faith for Pope John XXII (1316-1334), during the reign of Nicodemus I (1316-1324), according to Fr. Martin Jugie, A.A. Theologia dogmatica Christianorum orientalium ab Ecclesia Catholica dissidentium IV:373.
-Dvornik 174: "Another life of [Stephen] Uroš III was written, as mentioned above, by Gregory Camblak of Bulgaria."
Editor:
-Dvornik 226-227: Vitold "induced his Orthodox bishops to elect, in 1415, the Bulgarian Gregory Camblak as metropolitan of Kiev. The Metropolitan Photius of Moscow protested, and the Patriarch of Constantinople, who had refused all Vitold's requests for an independent metropolitan, excommunicated Gregory. This plan may have originated in Jagiello's and Vitold's western policy. They hoped that the presence of the new metropolitan of Kiev and of all Russia at the Council of Constance (1415) would provide incontrovertible evidence that there was no reason why the Teutonic Order should be allowed to continue its activity in Prussia: not only had all pagans in those parts been converted, but the Poles and Lithuanians were also bringing back to Rome the Russian schismatics. The whole plan misfired. The learned Bulgarian refused to back their polical plans and turned down the proposals of the council for reunion. After his death (1419), the Muscovite metropolitan continued to exercise his jurisdiction over the Lithuanian Orthodox."
Editor: Dvornik implies that Gregory was Orthodox; this contradicts Jugie and Gill, whose work testifies that Gregory was Catholic after the Council of Constance. In the footnotes to this section of the chapter, Dvornik refers to Albert Maria Ammann, S.J. Abriss der Ostlawischen Kirchengeschichte, Vienna 1950, 73-129; I have to comb this section to find any relevant info that may answer the question of Gregory's ecclesiastical allegiance.
-Oscar Halecki, From Florence to Brest (1439-1596), 2nd. ed., (Archon Books, 1968), 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 34, 37, 44:
28: Patriarch Joseph II of Constantinople excommunicated Gregory Tsamblak, as did his predecessor the Orthodox Patriarch Euthymius II of Constantinople.
31: "... the spectacular audience of the Metropolitan of Kiev seems not to have been followed by any further negotiations with him, and ... soon after his return from Constance Tsamblak disappeared, maybe retiring to a Moldavian monastery.70 ... 70 This is the hypothesis of [A.I.] Yatsimirsky (see above, note 54 [Grigoriy Tsamblak, Petersburg 1904]); see also Chodyrnicki, 47 note 4."
-Dmytro Blazejowskyj, Hierarchy of the Kyivan Church (861-1990) (Ed. Univ. Cath. Ucr. Clementis Papae, Opera N. 72, Sacrum Ucrainae Millenium, No. 3.), 90-91:
-Roger Aubert, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques. Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 2000-2003, vol. 28, cols. 1494-1501: "Shortly before his death (September 1406), Metropolitan Cyprian called his nephew Gregory (cf. 52. CAMBLAC Gregory, supra, XXI, 1486-88) to travel to Kiev with the intent to ensure his succession. But Cyprian died before the arrival of Gregory and the Patriarch of Constantinople appointed a Greek Photius (1408-1431) to replace it. The new Grand Prince of Lithuania, Vitovt, refused to recognize this and he tried to detach the bishoprics of his dominions within the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan of Moscow by electing Gregory as Metropolitan of Kiev with residence in Vilna. The Patriarch of Constantinople excommunicated him, and Gregory, at the request of Vitovt, led a delegation to the Lithuanian-Russian Orthodox Council of Constance (his position in favor of union with Rome is not clear)."

-English Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregory_Tsamblak):
-Polish Wikipedia (http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grzegorz_Camb%C5%82ak):
-Ukrainian Wikipedia (http://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B3%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%96%D0%B9_%D0%A6%D0%B0%D0%BC%D0%B1%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%BA):
-Russian Wikipedia (http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B3%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%A6%D0%B0%D0%BC%D0%B1%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%BA):
-Romanian Wikipedia (http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grigore_%C8%9Aamblac):
-http://ziarullumina.ro/documentar/mitropolitul-grigorie-tamblac-un-adevarat-ambasador-al-ortodoxiei:

-Popes were Gregory XII (1406-1415; †1417) and Martin V of Rome (1417-1431)
-Greek patriarchs of Constantinople were Euthymius II (1410-1416) and Joseph II (1416-1439), who died a sincere Catholic [AASS 8:I:184F-186E (210-212)]
-Titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople was Jean de La Rochetaillée (1412-1423; †1437)

Greek Neo-Martyrs (Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J.)

A non-Catholic cannot be a martyr. Cf. my post, "Heretical and schismatic false martyrs (Fr. René Hedde, O.P.)," a very rough translation of a section of the article "Martyre" by Fr. René Hedde, O.P. in the 1928 Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, 10.1:233.

I found Fr. Delehaye's article from a citation in Yves Congar, "A propos des saints canonisés dans les Eglises orthodoxes," Revue des sciences religieuses, 22 (1948), 240 n. 2, who says, "On a déjà posé plusieurs fois la question de savoir comment pourrait être réglée, dans le cas d’une réunion des Eglises orthodoxes à Rome, la question du culte rendu, dans ces Eglises, aux saints morts ou canonisés depuis le schisme. L’existence de saints comparables aux nôtres dans les Eglises orthodoxes est en effet une réalité de fait et qui n’entre en conflit avec aucun principe dogmatique. Nombre de moines et d’évêques orientaux ont mené, depuis la séparation comme avant elle, une vie héroïquement sainte, et Dieu a manifesté cette sainteté par des signes. D’autres, et aussi bien des laïcs, d’humbles et candides chrétiens, sont tombés victimes de l’Islam, des Tatars ou des Turcs et sont de vrais martyrs, témoins des vérités qui sont l’essence même de la foi chrétienne."

These are the words of Hippolyte Delehaye, "Greek Neo-Martyrs," The Constructive Quarterly, IX (1921), 712:
In reading an author who has elsewhere spoken well of these neo-martyrs, I admit having been painfully impressed by the words: "It is evident that for us, Catholics, they are neither saints nor martyrs." If this simply means that the Roman Church does not celebrate them, there is nothing further to be said. But what is lacking to constitute them true martyrs? Did they die for the differences which divide us? For the errors and subtleties of their theologians? Did they even suspect that they existed? Did they not shed their blood for the truths which are the essence of our faith and for which the most illustrious martyrs of the early centuries fought? The neo-martyrs are the purest glory of the Greek Church, and before these generous witnesses to the faith which we hold in common every Christian should bow.
Above: Ahmed the Calligrapher (†5/3/1682), layman convert from Islam and new martyr under the Turkish yoke, "a favorite saint of" the Society of St. John Chrysostom of Ayatriada Rum Katoliki Kilise in Istanbul, Turkey. Ahmed the Calligrapher is not on any Catholic calendar of saints (cf. Delehaye's comment above: "the Roman Church does not celebrate them").

Tuesday, August 27, 2013

Metropolitan Macarius of Kiev (1495-1497)

Macarius certainly was Catholic prior to becoming Metropolitan, but historians contradict each other on whether he died Catholic or Orthodox.

-Bollandists 9:II:xxvi:A, §108 (50): The section header in the margin says, "Metropolita Macarius Catholicus; item Josephus," then Fr. John Stilting, S.J., says, "De hisce Koialovicius pag. 47 ita habet: Ad annum MCDXCII (apud Kulczynskium 1490) urgente Alexandro, qui, mortuo parente Casimiro rege, magnus Lithuaniæ dux renuntiatus fuerat, metropolitanus creatus est Macarius abbas Vilnesis ad sanctissimam Trinitatem, unus ex illis, quorum nomina legationi sub Misaële institutæ adscripta legimus. Macario successit Josephus Sultan è nobili inter Lisuanos familia ortus. Unitum cum fuisse evincunt litteræ illius de unione & concilio Florentino ad Niphonem Constantinopolitanum anno MCDXCVII scriptæ."
-Bollandists 10:XI:118-119 (154-155):
-Mgr. Pelesz I:476 (488):
-Mgr. Pelesz I:478-479 (490-491): "weleher als Archimandrit von Wilno das im Jahre 1476 von Misaël an Papst Sixtus IV gerichtete Schreiben unterfertigt hat. Im Jahre 1495 versammelten sich (nach der Kiewer Chronik bei Karamsin VI. N. 403) die Bischöfe: Wassian von Wladimir, Lucas von Polozk, Wassian von Turow, Jonas von Luzk, und ordinirten den Archimandriten Macarius mit dem Beinamen Cort zum Metropoliten, und schickten dann einen gewissen Dionysius und einen Mönch, German, zum Patriarchen um den Segen. Der Patriarch Niphon schickte darauf seinen Gesandten Isaph mit der Confirmationsurkunde, so wie mit Briefen an den litauischen Grossfürsten und an die Bischöfe und die Gläubigen der Kiewer Metropolie. Der Gesandte des Patriarchen verlangte aber von den ruthenischen Bischöfen, dass sie künftig zuerst um den Segen bitten, bevor sie zur Ordination des Metropoliten schreiten, was diese auch zusagten; das jetzige Verfahren aber damit entschuldigten, dass auf dieselbe Weise, d. i. ohne vorherigen Segen des Patriarchen, auch der Metropolit Gregor I Semivlac ordinirt worden war. Daraus sieht man, dass die Kiewer Metropoliten immer um die Bestätigung des Patriarchen ersuchten (Kiew. Chron. Macarius wurde auf einer Reise nach Kiew im Dorfe Skryholovy von den Tataren gefangen und enthauptet."
-Mgr. Pelesz I:572 (584): "Es werden wohl einige Beweise dafür angeführt, allein der Umstand, dass sie das Abhängigkeitsverhältniss von Konstantinopel auch damals nicht aufgegeben haben, wo sie nicht mehr zweifeln konnten, dass die griechischen in Konstantinopel residirenden Patriarchen von der Union abfielen, und die unirten Patriarchen, wie aus dem obangeführten Breve des Papstes Alexander VI an den Wilnaer Bischof Albert hervorgeht, in Rom residirten, dieser Umstand macht die Orthodoxie der Metropoliten Simeon, Jonas I und Macarius I verdächtig. Ja sogar der Metropolit Joseph Soltan, der sich dann entschieden der Union angeschlossen hat, scheint anfangs dem Schisma gehuldigt zu haben, wie aus dem eben erwähnten Breve zu ersehen ist. Joseph Soltan arbeitete eifrig an der Ausbreitung der Union, allein er wurde in seinem Wirken durch die zahlreichen am Hofe der Königin Helena lebenden schismatischen Emissäre gehindert, und als dann sein Nachfolger sich offen für das Schisma erklärte, waren allmälig auch die letzen Spuren der Union verschwunden."
-Aurelio Palmieri in 1912 Catholic Encyclopedia: Macarius was "friendly to the union." Palmieri says, "Isidor resigned the Metropolitan See of Kieff about 1458, and in the same year Pius II appointed Gregor the Bulgarian, who was a disciple and companion of the former metropolitan, and who, according to the historian Golubinski, remained united to Rome until 1470, after which he became Orthodox, and died in 1472 [note: Gregory died Catholic, according to Oscar Halecki, pages 97-98 of the work cited below, and Jan Krajcar in New Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 12, 421]. Among his successors who were friendly to the union were Mikhail Drucki (1475-80), Semion (1481-88), Jonah Glezna (1492-94), Makap (1495-97), and Josef Soltan, who in 1500 wrote a letter to Alexander VI asking for papal confirmation of his metropolitan dignity." Palmieri, Aurelio. "The Religion of Russia." The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 27 Aug. 2013.
<http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13253a.htm>.
-Blazejowskyj 181:
-Oscar Halecki, From Florence to Brest (1439-1596), 2nd. ed., (Archon Books, 1968), 108: "fifteen years later, in 1497, one of the metropolitans, the same Macarius who as Archimandrite had signed Misael's letter to Sixtus IV, wanted to visit Kiev, he was murdered by Tartar invaders." Halecki 108 n. 34 says, "See on this Metropolitan, elected in 1495, and duly confirmed by Constantinople [Kazimierz] Chodynicki, [Kosciol prawoslawny a Rzeczpospolita Polska: zarys historyczny 1370-1632], 70 f."  
-Halecki, op. cit., 111: "... in May 1947, Metropolitan Mecarius was killed by the Tartars. That former signatory of Misael's appeal to Rome does not seem to have been more favorable to reunion than his predecessor Ionas Hlezna who, in 1489, had taken Simeon's place. All three metropolitans of whose activities very little is known, were obviously satisifed with their recognition by the Patriarch of Constantinople and the Lithuanian administration." Here Halecki cites Chodynicki, op. cit., 69-70, then Halecki continues, "The new candidate, Joseph, took a different attitude, and even before he was formally appointed, in May 1498, tried to receive from the Patriarch of Constantinople himself an approval of his project to restore the Union of Florence in his ecclesiastical province." 
-Cf. Halecki 105:
-Cf. Halecki  110:
-Joseph B. Koncevicius, Russia's Attitude Towards Union with Rome (9th-16th Centuries) (Cleveland, OH: John T. Zubal, Inc. Publishers and Booksellers, 1983), 145: "Nothing is clear regarding the attitude of the next Metropolitan, Macarius, who held office but a short time." Fr. Koncevicius's footnote 109 cites Przegląd Poznański, t. 34 (1862), 161-164 and Leon Krewza, Obrona jedności cerkiewnejabo dowody, którymi się pokazuje, iż grecka cerkiew z ła-cińską ma być zjednoczona (A Defense of Church Union, or Arguments showing why the Greek Church must unite with the Latin Church) (Wilno 1617), s. 91, 92.
-Roger Aubert, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques. Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 2000-2003, vol. 28, cols. 1494-1501: "For half a century, the successors of Gregory continued to maintain relations with Rome, but in 1507 Joseph Soltan turned back to the Patriarch of Constantinople to obtain confirmation of his election, and it was the same for his successors."
-Ukrainian Wikipedia (http://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%96%D0%B9_%28%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%82%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%82_%D0%9A%D0%B8%D1%97%D0%B2%D1%81%D1%8C%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9%29): 
-http://www.religion.in.ua/main/history/13354-sproba-vidroditi-kiyivske-knyazivstvo-naprikinci-xv-storichchya.html (in Ukrainian): 
-Russian Wikipedia (http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_I_%28%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%82%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%82_%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%B5%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9%29): 
-Polish Wikipedia (http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makary_I_%28metropolita_kijowski%29): in the words of the Polish Wikipedia, Macarius of Kiev "spoke strongly against the Union of Florence," according to Antoni Mironowicz: Kościół prawosławny w Polsce (Białostockie Towarzystwo Historyczne, 2006), 187. ISBN 836045602X 
-Another source on Macarius of Kiev in Russian (concerning his participation at the wedding of Catholic Alexander and Orthodox Helen):

-Pope was Alexander VI of Rome (1492-1503)
-Greek Patriarch of Constantinople was Maximus IV (1491-1497) -Titular Latin Patriarchs of Constantinople were Jerome Lando (1474-1496) and Giovanni Michiel (1497–1503)

Wednesday, March 13, 2013

Pope Francis

May Almighty God bless the ministry of the new Pope Francis, the Supreme Pontiff and successor of St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles. May our Lord bless the pope emeritus, Benedict XVI. In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen.

Saturday, February 23, 2013

Updates 2013

Dear readers, I pray that you have been well and that God infuses you with sanctifying grace. Glory to God, I graduated from Fordham University with a B.A. in Theology in May 2012. I need your prayers so that the Holy Spirit comes to my heart and makes me holy.

Let us pray for our Holy Father Pope Benedict XVI, and let us pray that God grants us a worthy successor to him on the Throne of St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles. Let us pray for all the members of the Church Militant, the Church Suffering, and the world. Let us pray for a swift end to the clerical sexual abuse scandal, and for prompt healing of the victims in soul and body. Let us pray for widespread conversions to the Catholic faith. Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.

This blog will hopefully continue to be part of a life that will, God willing, become more balanced and God-pleasing.

Thanks be to God, most of the Dictionnaire de Théologie Catholique is available online (letters T-Z to be available in 2017, God willing). This is one of my favorite Catholic works of all time because it is so useful for apologetics and Church history.

These are some brief updates that are mostly related to my page called "Stances."

Immaculate Conception
Consulting Fr. Xavier-Marie Le Bachelet (1855-1925), "Immaculée Conception," Dictionnaire de théologie catholique (Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1922), 7.1:845-1218 (PDF pages 427-613) <https://ia600308.us.archive.org/1/items/dictionnairedethv7pt1vaca/dictionnairedethv7pt1vaca.pdf> to address objections to the dogma based on statements by many authors, especially Popes like Bl. Innocent V and Clement VI (the latter while still Cardinal), cited in Edward Bouverie Pusey, First Letter to the Very Rev. J. H. Newman, D.D.: In Explanation, Chiefly in Regard to the Reverential Love Due to the Ever-blessed Theotokos, and the Doctrine of Her Immaculate Conception : with an Analysis of Cardinal de Turrecremata's Work on the Immaculate Conception (London: Rivingtons, 1869).

Pope Benedict V vs. Antipope Leo VIII

False Dimitry I 
See "Tsarevich Dimitry of Uglich Died Accidentally."

Pope Gregory VI and Simony
Today I started to transcribe the article by Denise Feytmans, "Grégoire VI était-il simoniaque?," Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire , 11 (1932 ), 130-137. After I transcribe the article, I will do a rough translation of it. Feytmans concludes (page 137), "It therefore seems prudent to admit the simony of Gregory VI without trying to find justifications or excuses." I have not yet read this article, so I don't know if it will change my mind. In any event, may the Lord lead us to the truth in this controversial matter of history. In the meantime, I believe that Gregory VI was true pope, which would not be the case if he obtained the papacy simoniacally. Click the link for citations of reliable sources that justify the following understanding of events: The wicked Pope Benedict IX (1032-1045) had become pope at age 20 and after ruling the Church for some years he wanted to marry. Benedict IX's holy godfather John Gratian wanted to rid the Church of such an unworthy pontiff, so he gave a very large sum of money to the party of Tusculum to compensate them for their interests, but "not profit Benedict IX personally" [Klaus-Jürgen Herrmann, "BENEDICT IX." The Papacy: An Encyclopedia, First Edition. Ed. Philippe Levillian, John W. O'Malley. Routledge, 2002. Religion Online. Taylor & Francis. http://www.routledgereligiononline.com:80/Book.aspx?id=w064_w064b105]. After a canonical election was observed, John Gratian reluctantly accepted the papacy and became Gregory VI (i.e., he did not plan on becoming pope, but only on making sure Benedict would step down). Later, he abdicated under pressure but voluntarily (he was not deposed) at the Council of Sutri [Dr. Warren H. Carroll, The Building of Christendom, 324-1100: A History of Christendom, vol. 2 (Royal, VA: Christendom College Press, 1987), 462-464, 469; buy this book today!]. He abdicated to avoid the scandal of an outward appearance of simony, because people then and today wrongly thought that he "bought the papacy" from his godson Benedict IX.

Pope Julius III and the Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte Scandal

Queen Ketevan of Georgia
A look at Catholic veneration of the queen.

Pope Martin IV & Michael Palaeologus
See the harsh evaluation in Carroll III:312, 315, 316-317, 321.

Metropolitan Zosimus of Moscow and Judaizing
I mistakenly reported in "Old Rome, Not New Rome" (Friday 7/16/2010) that "radical 'hatred of Rome' led Russians to install 'a Jew named Zosimas' as Metropolitan of Moscow (1490-1494) [Andrew Shipman]." I apologize for the error, and did not mean to libel Metropolitan Zosimus of Moscow. The learned Shipman was mistaken because, according to Fr. Mauricio Gordillo, S.J. in Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. Vacant et al. (1938), vol. 14, part 1, there are several good reasons (given by Nikolaĭ Petrovich Popov) to believe that Zosimus of Moscow was not a Judaizer, notwithstanding the allegations of caesaropapist and extremist Joseph of Volokolamsk.

Dr. Warren H. Carroll's Excellent A History of Christendom Series: Buy It Today!

How Catholic Saints are Different from other "Saints" - Dictionnaire de Théologie Catholique
An evalation of Albert Michel's take.

Photius of Constantinople


A History of Catholicism in Romania

Symeon the New Theologian and Gregory of Sinai on Filioque

TheDailyBeast's Gallery on 15 Papal Scandals

Pope Urban VI, the True Pope: Dr. Warren Carroll's Evaluation and Definitive Proof that Urban VI and the Roman Line were the True Popes


Catholic Patriarchs and Metropolitans in the Orthodox Sees of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, Kiev and Moscow, Ohrid, and Georgia After 1054
Most thorough list I can come up with to date.

Job of Pochayiv
I have an Orthodox book on Job of Pochayiv coming in the mail before mid-September 2015. I also plan to consult a Ukrainian book on Job () before October 1, 2015. More to come on the "Coronation of Pochaiv Icon of the Mother of God" in 1773, which is celebrated on May 1 in the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Calendar of the Archeparchy of Winnipeg. I will also give information about other Ukrainian icons. Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.

John Huss
Orthodox veneration of John and takes from Old (Joseph Wilhelm) and New Catholic Encyclopedia (Paul de Vooght), Dr. Warren Carroll on the Four Articles in III:505 and the execution of Huss in III:488-490, the DTC (P. Moncelle), and Louis Salembier, etc.

From the DTC and Fr. Michael Müller, C.Ss.R, fresh data on Utraquism and abundant new Patristic citations to be added to Catholic Patristics.

Russia Was Catholic Before It Became Orthodox
Continuing to update my thread on the Kievan metropolitans, with a closer look at the secular rulers and some saints whom Orthodox Christians consider to have been Orthodox, but were in communion with Rome--sources consulted include Joseph B. Koncevicius, Oscar Halecki, Aurelio Palmieri, John Stilting, Dmytro Blazejowskyj, Maurcio Gordillo, Yves Congar, and John Meyendorff. Further details on St. Sergius of Radonezh and other post-schism saints.

St. Methodius and Filioque
-Francis Dvornik, Byzantine Missions Among the Slavs: SS. Constantine-Cyril and Methodius (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1970), ##.

St. Andrew the Apostle and the See of Constantinople
-Francis Dvornik, The Idea of Apostolicity in Byzantium and the Legend of the Apostle Andrew (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1958), ##.

St. Sava of Serbia 
Attwater, Meyendorff, and other sources. Some of the professions of Serbian rulers in Joseph Gill, Byzantium and the Papacy.

Saints Loyal to Antipopes During Great Western Schism

The Council of Pisa
Why this council is NOT ecumenical.

Savonarola
Updates from M.-M. Gorce, Donald Weinstein, Herbert Lucas, Jourdan Hurtaud, Warren Carroll, Ludwig Pastor, Roberto Ridolfi, Pasquale Villari, K. Foster, Johann Peter Kirsch, and others.

The Sanctity of Emperors Constantine the Great & Justinian the Great
A look at Catholic and Orthodox sources. Constantine is a saint of the Catholic Church; Justinian is not.

Where and When Did the Blessed Virgin Mary Repose?

Post-Schism Byzantine Emperors, Patriarchs, and Orthodox Saints

Pope Sixtus IV and Stephen III the Great of Moldavia
The primary source for the former's commendation of the latter.

Translations of Fr. Martin Jugie & John Baptist Baur
I hope to translate Fr. Jugie's works: the highest priority is his work on the procession of the Holy Spirit.

Nuggets of Wisdom on Health (Nutrition, Training, Lifestyle)