Monday, April 11, 2011

Old Rome, Not New Rome 1

This is version 3.0 (2011) of part 1 of "Why God Led Me to Rome Instead of Constantinople." May God bless you with ever-growing communion with Him and may He bless you and yours with everlasting life. May He make use of this sinner to win people over to the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church by holiness of life and sound arguments from Sacred Scripture and Tradition and right reason. May God grant this sinner the strength to show, in these posts, that Catholicism, and not Eastern Orthodoxy, is the only true and saving faith, and that the Catholic Church is the bearer of the Four Marks of the Church. Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.

Since the Eastern Orthodox Church does not have an infallible magisterium,{1} it has been unable to definitively solve issues such as the following{2}: the procession of the Holy Spirit; the nature of the primacy of the Pope; the validity of Catholic Baptism; the canon of Sacred Scripture; whether there is a real distinction in God between His essence and energy; the form of the Eucharist; the immediacy of retribution; Purgatory; and other issues.

Notes to Preface
{1} Fr. Martin Jugie, A.A. (†1954), Theologia dogmatica Christianorum orientalium ab Ecclesia Catholica dissidentium IV:525-529.
{2} Op. cit., 538-539.






A. Constantinople Not an Apostolic See

B. Heretical Patriarchs of Constantinople
Despite its share of saintly archbishops and patriarchs,{1} the see of Constantinople has been occupied by numerous heretics and even heresiarchs. Its three Arian occupants were Eusebius of Nicomedia (339-342),{2} Eudoxius of Antioch (360-370),{3} and Demophilus (370-380).{4} The semi-Arian heresiarch Macedonius (342-346, 351-360; †364){5} and the heresiarch Nestorius (428-431){6} also held the throne, as did five Monophysites: Acacius (472-489),{7} Fravitas (489),{8} Euphemius (489-495),{9} Timothy I (511-518),{10} and Anthimus I (535-536).{11} The Monothelite Patriarchs of Constantinople include the heresiarch Sergius I (610-638),{12} Pyrrhus (638-641, 654),{13} Paul II (641-653),{14} Peter (654-666),{15} and John VI (712-714).{16} Constantinople also had a series of Iconoclast Patriarchs: Anastasius (730-754),{17} Constantine II (754-766),{18} Nicetas I (766-780),{19} Paul IV (780-784),{20} Theodotus I Cassiteras (815-821),{21} Antony I Cassimatis (821-836),{22} and John VII Grammaticus (836-842).{23} Photius (877-886), whose first term was illegitimate,{24} was guilty of doctrinal innovations,{25} especially his opposition to the Filioque.{26} Cyril I Lucaris (1612, 1620-1623, 1623-1633, 1633-1634, 1634-1635, 1637-1638) was a Calvinist,{27} Cyril V (1748-1751, 1752-1757) held Anabaptist tenets,{28} and Meletius IV Metaxakis (1921-1923; †1935) was a Freemason who declared Anglican orders valid.{29}

If Catholicism is false, then even more Patriarchs of Constantinople were heretics, since they accepted distinctively Catholic dogmas (e.g., Filioque, papal primacy):  John XI Beccus (1275-1282; †1297),{30} Joseph II (1416-1439),{31} Metrophanes II (1440-1443),{32} Gregory III Mammas, a renowned wonderworker (1443-1459),{33} Dionysius II (1546-1555),{34} Neophytus II (1602-1603, 1607-1612),{35} Raphael II (1603-1607),{36} Cyril II Contares (1633, 1635-1636, 1638-1639; †1640),{37} Athanasius V (1709-1711),{38} and probably others.{39}

Since 1054, there has been no "Orthodox" Pope of Rome, whereas the post-1054 Orthodox succession lines of the following autocephalous sees and Churches include multiple Catholics:
Constantinople: nine or more (to 1711)


Germanus (GILL, Joseph, S.J. Byzantium and the Papacy, 1198-1400 (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1979), 132
For clues on the theology of John Vatatzes see GILL, Joseph, S.J. Byzantium and the Papacy, 1198-1400 (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1979), 92-95
See ibid. 194-196 nn. 54-60 (297) on the remote possibility of the Catholic conversion of Emperor Andronicus III Palaeologus (1328-1341)
 
Alexandria: three or more (to 1517)
Every 186 on Nicholas of Alexandria (1210-1243)
GILL, Joseph, S.J. Byzantium and the Papacy, 1198-1400 (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1979), 184-185: Athanasius of Alexandria was part of the Union of Lyons
http://www.patriarchateofalexandria.com/index.php?module=content&cid=001003&id=155&lang=en
 

Antioch: four or more; up to 25 (to 1724) [G. D. Gallaro in NCE IX:479]
"During the centuries of tumult in Antioch, there were several patriarchs who professed communion with the bishop of Rome despite the antagonism that had developed between the Old Rome and the New Rome (Constantinople). According to one estimate, between the twelfth and eighteenth centuries there were perhaps as many as 25 patriarchs of Antioch in communion with Rome. However, there was never a stable, enduring union between the Church of Antioch and the Church of Rome." -- Very Rev. George D. Gallaro,"Melkite Greek Catholic Church." New Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 9, 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003, 479. I am not sure whose "estimate" this is; I will ask the Very Rev. George D. Gallaro.
GILL, Joseph, S.J. Byzantium and the Papacy, 1198-1400 (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1979), n. 18 on 274: Symeon II of Antioch was Catholic for a time; David of Antioch was Catholic but Euthymius of Antioch was Orthodox ("Setton, Crusades, II p. 566 ."
Gill 184: Theodosius of Antioch was part of the Union of Lyons (Theodosius IV:1269-1276)

Jerusalem: six or more (to 1503)

DTC
Every 182
Kiev: 15 or more (to 1596)
For proof see "Metropolitans of Kiev" by Will Huysman, 2/28/2011, with updates in September 2015. 
Before the 1054 schism (more info on the dating of the definitive East-West schism to follow), the following Metropolitans were certainly Catholic: Michael I of Kiev (988-992), Leontius (992-1008), John I (1019-1035), and Theopemptus (1035-1049)
After the Schism:
-The following 13 Metropolitans were certainly Catholic: Hilarion (1051-1055), Ephraim I (1055-1061), George (1062-1073), Nicholas I (1097-1101), Clement Smoliatich (1147-1154), Peter Akerovych (1241-1246), Gregory Tsamblak (1414-1420), Isidore (1436-1458; †1464), Gregory II the Bulgarian (1458-1472), Michael Drucki (1474-1480), Symeon (1481-1488), Jonah Gleznah (1492-1494), and Joseph II Bolgarynovich (1498–1501).
This Metropolitan was almost certainly Catholic: John IV (1164-1166)
These three Metropolitans may have been Catholic and data which implicates them as Orthodox may be unhistorical; details to follow in the hyperlinked post: John II (1080-1089), Nicephorus I (1104-1121), and Macarius (1495-1497).
Serbia: two or more (to 1321)
-St. Sava (1219-1233)
See the following:
Donald Attwater, Saints of the East (P.J. Kenedy & Sons, 1963), 143-144.
George Every, 189-190
Cf. Meyendorff
Bulgaria (Tarnovo and Ohrid): eight or more (to 1660)
Georgia: 15 or more (to 1240)
Every 182-185

Notes to Section B
{29}
{30}
{31}
{32}
{33} a. Siméon Vailhé, "Constantinople, Église de," in the 1907 DTC 3.2:1402, says that "the Catholic Patriarch Gregory Mammas ... had not abdicated and ... probably had not been deposed..." According to Fr. Joseph Gill, S.J. of happy memory, there was no anti-Catholic Patriarch Athanasius II of Constantinople (1450-1453); see The Council of Florence (Cambridge, 1959), p. 376 n. 3.
c. On the holy Gregory's reputation as a wonderworker, see his Greek biography on the Ecumenical Patriarchate website.
{34} a. Vailhé, op. cit., 1424-1425.
b.
c.
{35}
{36} a. Vailhé, op. cit., 1426.
b.
{37} a.
b.
{38} a. Vailhé, op. cit., 1432: "And concerning the Patriarch Athanasius V, we note that he was deposed in 1711, because he innovated in matters of faith and showed himself too favorable to Western ideas, that is to say to Catholicism."

C. Heretical Patriarchs of Alexandria

D. Heretical Patriarchs of Antioch

E. Heretical Patriarchs of Jerusalem

F. Alleged Counter-Examples proposed by Orthodox: Old Rome

G. The Russian Church
The first Christians of Russia were Catholic.{1} Princess St. Olga of Kiev was Catholic,{2} and so was her grandson, Grand Prince St. Vladimir I Sviatoslavich the Great.{3} From his conversion until the elevation of anti-Catholic Metropolitan Nicephorus I of Kiev (1104-1121),{4} all the metropolitans of Kiev were Catholic,{5} except for John II of Kiev (1080-1089).{6} These were St. Michael I of Kiev (988-992),{7} Leontius (992-1008),{8} John I (1019-1035),{9} Theopemptus (1035-1049),{10} Hilarion (1051-1055),{11} Ephraim I (1055-1061),{12} George (1062-1073),{13} John III (1089-1091),{14} and Nicholas I of Kiev (1097–1101).{15} Even between 1121 and the Ecumenical Council of Florence, not all the Metropolitans of Kiev were Orthodox; Catholic Metropolitans of Kiev during this time period include Clement Smoliatich (1147-1154){16} and Peter Akerovych (1241-1246){17}, and probably John IV (1164-1166).{18} There is no historical certainty that the following Metropolitans of Kiev were Orthodox: Nicetas (1122-1126),{19} Michael II (1130-1145),{20} Constantine I (1156-1159),{21} Theodore (1161-1163),{22} and Nicephorus II (1182-1198).{23} Peter of Kiev (1308-1326), who resided in Moscow starting in 1325, was Catholic for quite a while (until at least 1316),{24} but became Orthodox in 1324 at the latest.{25}

On Daniel of Galicia see GILL, Joseph, S.J. Byzantium and the Papacy, 1198-1400 (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1979), 74 n. 99 (272), 82 nn. 12-14 (274), 84

Notes to section G
{1} a.
b.
{2} a.
b.
{3} a.
b. Andrew Shipman, "St. Vladimir the Great," in the 1912 Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 15.
{4} a.
b.
{5} a. Fr. Stilting in AASS
b. Fr. Yves Congar, O.P., After Nine Hundred Years: The Background of the Schism Between the Eastern and Western Churches (Fordham University Press, 1959), p. 95, n. 7.
c. Fr. Joseph Schweigl, "Menologio graeco-slavico post annum 1054," Periodica de re morali, canonica, liturgica 3 (Rome 1941): 222.
{6}
{7}
{8} a.
b.
c. Fr. Mauricio Gordillo, S.J. in the 1938 DTC 14.1:217: the letter denouncing unleavened bread is not by Leontius of Kiev, but by a metropolitan in Bulgaria after the time of the anti-Catholic bishops Leo of Ochrid and Michael Cerularius.
f. The Patriarchs of Constantinople were Catholic Sisinnius II (996-998) [Siméon Vailhé in 1907 DTC 3.2:1359] and Sergius II (1001-1019).
{9} a.
b.
d. The Patriarchs of Constantinople were Sergius II (1001-1019), Eustathius (1019-1025), and Alexius I the Studite (1025-1043).
{10} a.
b.
e. The Patriarchs of Constantinople were Alexius I the Studite (1025-1043) and the anti-Catholic Michael I Cerularius (1043-1058).
{11} a.
b. Fr. Congar, loc. cit.
{12} a.
b. Fr. Congar, loc. cit.
{13} a.
b. Fr. Congar, loc. cit.
c. Fr. Gordillo in op. cit., 218: the anti-Catholic letter said to be a 1072 work of Metropolitan George of Kiev is probably a 12th century work
e. The Patriarchs of Constantinople were Constantine III Leichoudes (1059-1063) and the anti-Catholic John VIII Xiphilinus (1064-1075) [AASS 8:I:127C-128D (153-154)], who frustrated an attempted reunion of the Churches in 1072 under Pope Alexander II of Rome (1061-1073) and Byzantine Emperor Michael VII Ducas (1071-1078; †1090) [Fr. Jugie I:402].
{14} a.
b. Fr. Congar, loc. cit.
{15} a.
b. Fr. Congar, loc. cit.
{16}
{17}
{18} a. Fr. Stilting, op. cit., xviii:EF, §75 (43), says "Joannes probabilius Catholicus", and according to Ignatius Kulczynski, O.S.B.M., he wrote a letter of obedience to Pope Alexander III of Rome at the command of Grand Prince Rostislav I Mstislavich of Kiev (1154, 1159–1167), whom the Eastern Orthodox commemorate on March 14 (see his OCA entry).
d. The Patriarch of Constantinople was Luke Chrysoberges (1156-1169) [AASS 8:I:139C-140C (165-166)].
{19} a. Fr. Stilting says, op. cit., xviii:EF, §73 (42), that he was in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople, but it is uncertain if Nicetas was Catholic or schismatic.
b. Mgr. Pelesz I:293 (305) says, "über dessen Wirksamkeit keine Nachrichten vorhanden sind."
d. The Patriarch was John IX Agapetus of Constantinople (1111-1134) [AASS 8:I:131D-132B (157-158)].
{20} a. Fr. Stilting says, loc. cit., that he was in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople, but it is uncertain if Michael II was Catholic or schismatic.
b. Mgr. Pelesz I:294-295 (306-307) is not clear on whether Michael II was Catholic or Orthodox.
e. The Patriarchs of Constantinople were John IX Agapetus (1111-1134) [AASS 8:I:131D-132B (157-158)], Leo Styppeiotes (1134-1143) [AASS 8:I:132B-133B (158-159)], and Michael II Kourkouas (1143-1146) [AASS 8:I:133C-E (159)].
{21} a. Fr. Stilting, op. cit., xviii:EF, §75 (43), says "de hisce nihil certi invenio".
b.
e. The Patriarch of Constantinople was Luke Chrysoberges (1156-1169) [AASS 8:I:139C-140C (165-166)].
{22} a. Fr. Stilting, loc. cit., says "de hisce nihil certi invenio".
b.
e. The Patriarch of Constantinople was Luke Chrysoberges (1156-1169) [AASS 8:I:139C-140C (165-166)].
{23}
{24}
{25}
{26}
{27}
{28}
{29}
{30}
{31}
{32}
{33}

H. The Serbian Church
-Jugie IV:373: Stephen Nemanja professed the Catholic faith to Pope Clement III, who gave the former his apostolic benediction in 1189 -- his two sons Stephen the First-Crowned (1196-1228) and Vukan (1202-1204) were Catholics
-Jugie IV:373: "Anno 1199, synodus Diocliæ habita, cui duo legati Innocentii III præfuerunt, suo sexto canone declarabat totam Serbiam profiteri Ecclesiam romanum omnium Ecclesiarum matrem ac magistram esse. Post Constantinopolim a Turcis captam, Sabas, Serbiæ metroplitanus, ab Honorio papa III coronam regiam pro frate suo Stephano Nemanitch obinuit. Mox vero Urochio regnante (1243-1276), union cum Ecclesia catholica rupta est; quam per aliquot annos instaurasse videtur Uorchius III (1321-1323?) Hic fidei professionem ad Joannem papam XXII misit, in qua hæc inter alia occurrebant: 'Primatum quoque ipsius sacrosanctæ Romanæ Ecclesiæ prout in præmissa serie continetur, ad ipsius Ecclesiæ obedientiam sponte veniens, fateor, recognosco, accepto ac sponte suscipio.'11 1. P. Balan, Delle relazione fra la Chiesa cattolica e gli Slavi, Romæ, 1880, p. 225. Markovitch, op. cit., t. I, p. 1-64; t. II, p. 305-560, plura habet de relationibus Serborum cum Sancta Sede; cf. etiam Fermengiu, in Starina, t. XXV."
-On Stefan Uroš II Milutin (1282-1321) see Gill 190 nn. 29-31, 34-36 (295). N. 34 on 295 says, "The interest of Uros in Catholicism was purely political. When Charles of Valois's expedition failed to materialise, Uros dropped his contacts with Avignon; Raynaldus, 1308, 29. John XXII wrote of him as 'that treacherous King of Serbia, nay, a schismatic and a thorough enemy of the Christian religion;' Raynaldus, 1318, 35."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stefan_Milutin
-Jugie IV:373: Stephen Dusan pretended to submit to Pope Innocent VI, while punishing Catholics with death in the sixth article of his civil code: Jugie IV:373: "catholicæ Ecclesiæ infensus fuit, quamvis ad Innocentium papam VI ficto obsequio aliquando se converterit"; cf. GILL, Joseph, S.J. Byzantium and the Papacy, 1198-1400 (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1979), 208 n. 28 and, on Stephen Dusan's claims to have become Catholic and stopped persecuting Catholics, 238 n. 27

I. The Bulgarian Church
Jugie IV: Tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria (1197-1207) professed papal primacy to Innocent III (Theiner, Vetera monomenta Slavorium meridionalium, I, 15-16
Jugie IV:372: Basil of Tarnovo professed papal primacy to Innocent III (Theiner, ibid., 17) - se Vailhé in DTC, "Bulgarie," II, 1189ff. and J. Markovitch, Gli Slavi ed i Papi, t. II, p. 502-608, Zagreb, 1897.
Cf. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4206673?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.
GILL, Joseph, S.J. Byzantium and the Papacy, 1198-1400 (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1979) 63: Pope Innocent III made Basil the "Primate of all Bulgaria"
GILL 190: Joachim of Tarnovo was a Catholic (1()
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Patriarchs_of_the_Bulgarian_Orthodox_Church

J. The Georgian Church
R. Janin
Cyril Toumanoff
Carroll III:169: the Georgian monks of Mt. Athos were in communion with Pope Innocent III

K. The Egyptian Church
GILL, Joseph, S.J. Byzantium and the Papacy, 1198-1400 (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1979), 52-53 nn. 10-11 on 268: The monks of Mt. Sinai were in communion with Pope Honorius III (1216-1227) as of 8/6/1217 and 12/4/1233, according to A. L. Tautu, Acta Honorii III et Gregorii IX (Rome, 1950), n. 17 and n. 122

M. The Photian Schism

N. The Council of Florence

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