Wednesday, April 13, 2011

The 21 Ecumenical Councils

1 - Nicaea I (325)
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-Hefele 1.1:335–632
-president was Bishop St. Hosius the Confessor of Cordoba, who was assisted by the papal legates Priests Victor and Vincent of Rome [Henri Leclercq]
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-318 bishops [Henri Leclercq]
-"Cecilian of Carthage [311-325], Mark of Calabria, Nicasius of Dijon, [and] Donnus of Stridon in Pannonia" were the only other Roman Catholic bishops present [Henri Leclercq]
-20 canons [Hefele 1.2:528–620]




2 - Constantinople I (381)
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-Hefele 2.1:1–48
-J. Bois in DTC 3.1:1227-1231
-successive Presidents of the Council called by the holy Emperor Theodosius I the Great (379-395) were Patriarch St. Meletius of Antioch (360-381), Archbishop St. Gregory Nazianzen the Theologian of Constantinople (Doctor; 379-381; †390), and Archbishop St. Nectarius of Constantinople (381-397)
-originally a General Council of the East; no involvement or representation of Pope St. Damasus I of Rome (366-384)
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3 - Ephesus (431)

4 - Chalcedon (451)
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-Pope St. Leo I the Great of Rome (Doctor; 440-461)
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-27 canons

5 - Constantinople II (553)
-Mansi IX:163-658 (88-335)
-Hefele :
-J. Bois in DTC 3.1:1231-1259
-É. Amann in DTC 15.2:1268–1294

6 - Constantinople III (680-681)
-Mansi X:190-922 (101-467)
-Hefele 3.1:472–538
-J. Bois in DTC 3.1:1259-1274
-É. Amann in DTC 7.1:93-132
-Fr. Martin Jugie, A.A. in DTC 10.2:2307-2323
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-Patriarch George I of Constantinople (679-686)
-Patriarch Peter V of Alexandria
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7 - Nicaea II (787)
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-Hefele 3.2:601–798
-G. Fritz in DTC 11.1:417-441
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8 - Constantinople IV (869-870)
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-Hefele 4.1:481-546
-Fr. Martin Jugie, A.A. in DTC 3:1273-1307
-E. Amann in DTC 12:1549-1582; 16:666-667
-Pope Adrian II of Rome (867-872)
-Patriarch St. Ignatius of Constantinople (847-858, 867-877)
-Patriarch Michael I of Alexandria (860-870) [AASS 6:V:84, §446 (126)] represented by Deacon Joseph [Mansi XVI:190B]
-Patriarch Nicholas II of Antioch (860-879) [AASS 7:IV:123A-C, §579-581 (153)] represented by Metropolitan Thomas of Tyre [ibid.]
-Patriarch Theodosius of Jerusalem (862-878) [AASS 5:III:xli, §180 (53)] represented by Presbyter Elijah the syncellus [ibid.]
-two of the 26 metropolitans who signed the Acts of the Eighth Ecumenical Council [Mansi XVI:190C-191D] signed the acts of the sixth session of the Robber Council of 879-880 [Mansi XVII-1:513]: Cyprian of Claudiopolis and Ignatius of Hierapolis
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9 - Lateran I (1123)
-Mansi XXI:277-304 (148-161)
-Hefele 4.2:630-644
-F. Vernet in DTC 8.2:2628-2637
-Pope Callistus II of Rome (1119-1124) "presided in person"
-22 canons promulgated

10 - Lateran II (1139)
-Mansi XXI:523-546 (271-282)
-Hefele 5.1:721-738
-F. Vernet in DTC 8.2:2637-2644
-Pope Innocent II of Rome (1130-1143)
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11 - Lateran III (1179)
-Mansi XXII:209-468 (118-247)
-Hefele 5.2:1086-1112
-F. Vernet in DTC 8.2:2644-2652
-Pope Alexander III of Rome (1159-1181)
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-Latin Patriarch Amalric of Jerusalem (1158-1180) represented by Prior Peter of the Holy Sepulcher [Hefele 5.2:1087]

12 - Lateran IV (1215)
-Mansi XXII:953-1086 (490-556)
-Hefele 5.2:1316–1398
-F. Vernet in DTC 8.2:2652–2667
-Carroll III:188:
-Gill, Byzantium and the Papacy 34-36, 43-47:
-Pope Innocent III of Rome (1198-1216)
-Latin Patriarch Gervase of Constantinople (1215-1219)
-Latin Patriarch Raoul of Merencourt of Jerusalem (1214-1225)
-Maronite Patriarch Jeremiah II Amchiti (1199-1230) attended (Carroll III:188)
-vicar of Patriarch Nicholas I of Alexandria (1210-1243) attended (Carroll III:188)
-Was it a vicar of Patriarch Joachim of Antioch (1199-1219) who attended? (Cf. Carroll III:188)

13 - Lyons I (1245)
-Mansi XXIII:605-686 (303-343)
-Hefele 5.2:1633–1679
-Pope Innocent IV of Rome (1243-1254)
-Latin Patriarch Nicholas de Castro Arquato (1234–1251) [AASS 8:I:151C-F (177)]
-no involvement of Greek Orthodox Patriarch Gregory I of Alexandria (1243-1263) [J. Pargoire in 1903 DTC 1.1:796]
-Latin Patriarch Albert Rezzato of Antioch (1226–1245)
-Patriarch Berthold of Aquileia (1218-1251)
-Catholic Metropolitan Peter Akerovych of Kiev (1241-1246) came with Grand Prince St. Michael the Martyr, Wonderworker of Chernigov

14 - Lyons II (1274)
-Mansi XXIV:37-136 (25-75)
-Hefele 6.1:153–209
-F. Vernet in DTC 9.1:1361–1391
-Bl. Pope Gregory X of Rome (1271-1276) and 15 cardinals
-Titular Latin Patriarch Pantaleon Giustiani of Constantinople (1253–1278) [Hefele 6.1:168; F. Vernet in DTC 9.1:1376]
-Titular Latin Patriarch Opizo Fieschi of Antioch (1247–1292) [Hefele 6.1:168; F. Vernet in DTC 9.1:1376]
-Greek ex-Patriarch Germanus III of Constantinople (1267) [AASS 8:I:164A-165E (190-191)]
-no involvement of Greek Orthodox Patriarch Nicholas II of Alexandria (1263-1276) [J. Pargoire in 1903 DTC 1.1:796]
-It appears that Patriarch Athanasius III of Alexandria (1276-1316) and Theodosius IV of Antioch (1269-1276) were Catholic, at least for a time: Joseph Gill, S.J., Byzantium and the Papacy, 1198-1400 (Rutgers University Press, 1979), 183-185 nn. 6-8 (294).
-Fr. Yves Congar, O.P., I Believe in the Holy Spirit III:130: "it is not possible to say that the Greek Church was really represented"

15 - Vienne (1311-1312)
-Mansi XXV:367-416 (189-213)
-Hefele 6.2:643-719
-J. Leclercq in DTC 15.2:2973-2979
-Avignon Pope Clement V of Rome (1305-1314)
-Titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, Nicholas of Thebes (1308-1331) [Mansi XXV:380CD (195)]
-Titular Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem [Mansi XXV:380E (195)]
-Patriarch of Aquileia Ottobuono of Razzi (1302-1315) [Mansi XXV:380D (195)]
-Patriarch Angelo Motonense of Grado (1310-1313) [Mansi XXV:380DE (195)]

16 - Constance (1414-1418)
-Mansi XXVII:519-1240 (269-629); appendix in Mansi XXVIII:1-976 (10-497)
-Hefele 7.1
-A. Baudrillart in DTC 3.2:1200-1224
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-no involvement of Greek Orthodox Patriarch Athanasius IV of Alexandria (1417-1425) [J. Pargoire in 1903 DTC 1.1:796]


17 - Basel-Ferrara-Florence (1431-1445)
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-Hefele 7.2
-A. Vogt in DTC 6.1:24-50
-Pope Eugene IV of Rome (1431-1447)
-Patriarch Joseph II of Constantinople (5/21/1416-6/10/1439), who died a sincere Catholic
-Patriarch Philotheus of Alexandria (1435-1459) represented by the future Patriarch Gregory III Mammas of Constantinople; contrary to his official biography on the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria website, there was no anti-union synod of 1443 or 1450 and Patriarch Philotheus actually sent a Letter to Pope Eugene IV of Rome in which he says that anyone who does not accept the Council of Florence is a heretic [Fr. Gill 323; Mansi XXXI-2:1703-1704 (300)]
-Patriarch Dorotheus II of Antioch (1436-1454) represented by Metropolitan Isidore of Kiev
-Patriarch Joachim of Jerusalem (1431-1450) represented by Metropolitan Dositheus of Monembasia
-no anti-union synod of 1443 [Fr. Gill 354], nor was there an anti-union synod in 1450 [Fr. Gill 376 n. 3]
-Greek Church did not officially repudiate Council of Florence until 1484 [Fr. Gill 410]

18 - Lateran V (1512-1517)
-Mansi XXXII:649–1002 (332-508)
-Hefele 8.1:339–375, 396–548
-F. Vernet in DTC 8.2:2667–2686
-Pope Julius II of Rome (1503-1513) and Pope Leo X of Rome (1513-1521)
-Titular Latin Patriarch Jacques Cortès of Alexandria (1552-1568) [F. Vernet in DTC 8.2:2675]
-Titular Latin Patriarch of Antioch [F. Vernet in DTC 8.2:2675]

19 - Trent (1545-1563)
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-Titular Latin Patriarch Anthony Helia of Jerusalem (1558-1575) [Hefele 9.2:717]
-Patriarch Daniel Matthew Alvise Barbaro (1550-1570) [Hefele 9.2:717]
-Patriarch Giovanni Trevisano of Venice (1560-1590) [Hefele 9.2:717]
-no involvement of Patriarch Joasaph II of Constantinople (1555-1565) even though Pope Pius IV of Rome (1555-1559) invited him [Hefele 9.2:1025]
-no involvement of anti-Catholic Patriarch Joachim I Pany of Alexandria (1487-1567), though Pope Pius IV of Rome (1555-1559) invited him [Hefele 9.2:1025], since "the Alexandrian Melkites finally severed relations with Rome after the Turkish conquest of Alexandria in 1517" [G. A. Maloney in NCE I:271]
-no involvement of Patriarch Joachim IV of Antioch (1543-1576), even though Pope Pius IV of Rome (1555-1559) invited him [Hefele 9.2:1025]
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20 - Vatican I (1870)
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21 - Vatican II (1962-1965)
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