Tuesday, November 02, 2010

Post-Schism Russian Orthodox Saints (Fr. Joseph Schweigl)

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I found the following information in Fr. Joseph Schweigl, "Menologio graeco-slavico post annum 1054," Periodica de re morali, canonica, liturgica 3 (Rome 1941): 221-228.

Russia (Kievan Rus') was a Catholic nation from the conversion of Grand Prince St. Vladimir I Sviatoslavich the Great (r. 980-1015), the Equal to the Apostles (July 15) in 988 until 1104.{1} Russia was mostly in schism from the Catholic Church from 1104 to 1461.{2} Fr. Schweigl of pious memory says that all 11th century Russian metropolitans were Catholic, some 12th century metropolitans were Catholic, all 13th century metropolitans were of suspect faith, no 14th century metropolitan was certainly Catholic, and around the time of the Council of Florence, Russia was split into a Catholic part and an Orthodox part, with the Catholic part lasting as late as 1520.{3}

When there is nothing against dogma,{4} the Church can make prudent decisions to include post-schism saints in the martyrology without reaching strictly scientific certainty as to the Catholic faith of the people in question,{5} but based on a moral certainty.{6}

According to Fr. Alphonse Raes, S.J. of happy memory, the first edition of the Russian Catholic liturgy of St. John Chrysostom approved by the Vatican and published in Rome, Typographie de Grottaferrata 1940, In-8º, 112 pages,{7} omits Peter of Moscow (1308-1326), Alexis of Moscow (1354-1378), Jonah of Moscow (1448-1461), and Philip II of Moscow (1566-1568) because the first two were consciously dependent on the Constantinople Patriarch when he was clearly in formal schism from Rome, and the latter two knowingly and deliberately rejected the Ecumenical Council of Florence.{8}

All you great Russian saints, pray for the conversion of Russia to the one true faith! Pray for me, the worst of sinners. Amen.
Notes & References
{1} Fr. Schweigl, p. 522.
{2} Ibid.
{3} Ibid. pp. 522-223, citing "PELESCH, Geschichte der Union der ruthenischen Kirche mit Rom (1888) vol. I 169 ss, 418 ss, 571 ss; cf. LEIB, Rome, Kiev et Byzance a la fin du XI siècle (1088-1099), 1924."
{4} Ibid. p. 524.
{5} The following saints appear in the list of saints of the Roman calendar that the Servant of God Pope Paul VI approved in 1969:
1. St. Sava of Serbia (January 14) [1174-1237]
Note: For proof that St. Sava of Serbia was Catholic, see Donald Attwater, Saints of the East (####: P. J. Kennedy, 1963), 143-144 and Butler's Lives of the Saints, Thurston & Attwater Edition, vol. I, January-March (1981), 86-87. I will expand on this ih a later post that also takes into account primary sources and the writings of Fr. Martin Jugie, Fr. John Meyendorff, V. J. Popishil, and Horace Mann.
2. St. Nicetas of Novgorod (January 31) [†1108]
3. St. John the Martyr of Vilnius (April 14) [†1342]
4. St. Anthony the Martyr of Vilnius (April 14) [†1342]
5. St. Eustace the Martyr of Vilnius (April 14) [†1342]
6. St. Stephen the Enlightener of Perm (April 26) [1340-1396]
7. St. Stephen Pechersky (April 27) [†1094]
8. St. Cyril of Turov (April 28) [1130-1182]
9. St. Ignatius of Rostov (April 28) [†1288]
Note: According to Butler's Lives of the Saints, Thurston & Attwater Edition, vol. II, April-June (1981), 413, Ignatius was present at the 1274 Synod of Vladimir. This Synod was under the presidency of Metropolitan Cyril III of Kiev (1247-1281), who was certainly Orthodox and consciously anti-Catholic <http://thebananarepublican.blogspot.com/2011/02/metropolitans-of-kiev.html>.
10. St. Isaiah the Wonderworker of Rostov (May 15) [†1090]
11. St. Euphrosyne of Polotsk (May 23) [†1173]
12. St. Leontius of Rostov (May 23) [†1077]
13. St. Nicetas the Wonderworker of Pereaslavl (May 24) [†1186]
14. St. German of Valaam (June 28) [†?]
15. St. Sergius of Valaam (June 28) [†?]
16. St. Anthony of the Kiev Caves (July 10) [983-1073]
17. St. Theodosius of the Kiev Caves (July 10)
18. St. Theodore the Black of Yaroslavl (September 19) [†1299]
19. St. David of Yaroslavl (September 19) [†1299]
20. St. Constantine of Yaroslavl (September 19) [†1299]
21. St. Michael the Martyr, Wonderworker of Chernigov (September 21) [†1246]
Note: St. Michael accompanied the Catholic Metropolitan Peter Akerovych of Kiev (1241-1246) to the 13th Ecumenical Council of Lyons in 1245 <http://thebananarepublican.blogspot.com/2011/02/metropolitans-of-kiev.html>.
22. St. Theodore the Martyr, Wonderworker of Chernigov (September 21) [†1246]
23. St. Sergius the Wonderworker of Radonezh (September 25) [1314-1392]
Note: According to Fr. John Meyendorff, Byzantium and the Rise of Russia (), St. Sergius was in communion with the following Orthodox prelates: Alexis of Moscow (1354-1378) and Cyprian of Kiev (1381-1382; 1390-1406). I have demonstrated that these prelates were consciously anti-Catholic in <http://thebananarepublican.blogspot.com/2011/02/metropolitans-of-kiev.html>. I will expand on this in a later post.
24. St. Abraham the Wonderworker of Rostov (October 29) [†1073]
25. St. Barlaam of Khutyn (November 6) [†1193]
The following saints appear on the Ruthenian calendar of "the Byzantine Ruthenian Metropolitan Church of Pittsburgh":
26. St. Gregory Palamas the Wonderworker of Thessalonica (Second Sunday of Great Lent) [1296-1359]
27. St. Parasceva Petca the New of Tarnovo (October 14) [†1201?]
Note: The date's given for St. Parasceva's life are varied. The Ruthenian source above lists 1201; contrast with the following sources:
a) 11th century, with no explicit reference to substantiate <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parascheva_of_the_Balkans>
I'll check the Orthodox hagiographies in the endnotes at Wikipedia and <http://vremuritulburi.com/2015/10/13/viata-sfintei-cuvioase-parascheva/>:, particularly <http://www.libris.ro/viata-si-minunile-cuvioasei-maicii-noastre-ADR978-606-8271-66-8--p848606.html>
b) 11th century, with no reference to substantiate for 10/27/2015
c) no date <http://www.roca.org/OA/53-54/53k.htm>
d) no date <http://oca.org/saints/lives/2015/10/14/102968-venerable-parasceva-petka-of-serbia>
{6} Fr. Schweigl, p. 528.
{7} Fr. Alphonse Raes, S.J. "La première édition romaine de la liturgie de S. Jean Chrysostome en staroslave," Orientalia christiana periodica 7 (1941): 518.
{8} Op. cit., p. 521.

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