Wednesday, September 01, 2010

Why God Led Me To Rome Instead of Constantinople

Stay tuned for version 3.0 (2011) of part 1 of "Why God Led Me to Rome Instead of Constantinople."

Constantinople Not an Apostolic See

Heretical Patriarchs of Constantinople
-three Arians: Eusebius of Nicomedia (339-342), Eudoxius of Antioch (360-370), Demophilus (370-380)
-one Semi-Arian: Macedonius (342-346, 351-360; †364)
-one Nestorian: Nestorius (428-431; †451)
-five Monophysites: Acacius (472-489), Fravitas (489), Euphemius (489-495), Timothy I (511-518), Anthimus I (535-536)
-six Monothelites: Sergius I (610-638), Pyrrhus (638-641, 654), Paul II (641-653), Peter (654-666), John VI (712-714)
-seven iconoclasts: Anastasius (730-754), Constantine II (754-766), Nicetas I (766-780), Paul IV (780-784), Theodotus I Cassiteras (815-821), Antony I Cassimatis (821-836), John VII Grammaticus (836-842)
-one Calvinist: Cyril I Lucaris (1612, 1620-1623, 1623-1633, 1633-1634, 1634-1635, 1637-1638)
-if Catholicism is false, then even more Patriarchs of Constantinople were heretics, since they accepted distinctively Catholic dogmas (e.g., Filioque, papal primacy):
John XI Beccus (1275-1282; †1297); Joseph II (1416-1439); Metrophanes II (1440-1443); Gregory III Mammas, a renowned wonderworker (1443-1451; †1459) [Ecumenical Patriarchate website]; Dionysius II (1546-1555) [Ecumenical Patriarchate website; AASS 8:I:228C-230B (254-256); Simeon Vailhé in DTC 3.2:1424-1425]; Neophytus II (1602-1603, 1607-1612) [Ecumenical Patriarchate website; ]; Raphael II (1603-1607) [AASS 8:I:237C-238A (263-264); Simeon Vailhé in DTC 3.2:1426]; Cyril II Contares (1633, 1635-1636, 1638-1639) [Ecumenical Patriarchate website; AASS 8:I:242B-243D,243F-244F (268-270)], and Athanasius V (1709-1711) [Siméon Vailhé in DTC 3.2:1432]
-one with Anabaptist tenets: Cyril V (1748-1751, 1752-1757)

Heretical Patriarchs of Alexandria
-Theophilus I (385-412) was an Origenist until 400.{1}
{1} "Until 400 Theophilus of Alexandria was an acknowledged Origenist. His confident was Isidore, a former monk of Nitria, and his friends, 'the Tall Brothers,' the accredited leaders of the Origenist party." -- Fr. Ferdinand Prat, S.J. "Origen and Origenism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 9 Apr. 2011 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11306b.htm>.
-Monophysites were Dioscorus I (444-451; †454), Timothy III the Cat (460-475, 477-482), Peter III Mongus (477, 482-490), Athanasius II (490-496), John II (496-505), John III (505-516), Timothy IV (517-535), Theodosius I (535-536)
-Cyrus (631-643) was a Monothelite

Heretical Patriarchs of Antioch
-Paul of Samosata (260-268; †275), Eulalius (331-332), Euphronius (332-333), Paulinus (330), Stephen I (342-344), Leontius the Eunuch (344-358), Eudoxius (358-359), John I (428-442)
-Monophysites were Peter the Fuller (469-471, 476, 458-488), John II Codonatus (476-477), and Severus (512-518; †538)
-Palladius (488-498) and Flavian II (498-512) accepted Chalcedon but also accepted the Henoticon
-Monothelites were Anastasius III (620-628), Macedonius (628-640), and Macarius (656-681; †685)

Heretical Patriarchs of Jerusalem
-St. Maximus III (333-348) started out Arian
-Juvenal (422-458) was Monophysite until 451
-Origenists were John II (386-417) and Eustochius (552-564)
-Martyrius (478-486) accepted the Henoticon
-if Catholicism is false, then even more Patriarchs of Jerusalem were heretics, since they announced their loyalty to and explicit desire for communion with the Catholic Church: Lazarus (1334-1368), Abraham I (1468), James III (1492-1503?), and Mark III (1503) [DTC 8.2:1003-1004]

The "Third Rome:" Moscow vs. Kiev
-Princess St. Olga of Kiev was Catholic [Nicholas Brianchaninov]
-excepting Metropolitan John II of Kiev (1080-1089), Kievan Rus' was Catholic from the time of St. Vladimir the Great's 988 conversion until 1104 (Metropolitan St. Michael I [988-992] through Nicholas [1097-1101]), which saw the elevation of Orthodox Metropolitan Nicephorus I of Kiev (1104-1121) [Fr. Joseph Schweigl; Fr. Yves Congar, O.P.]
-St. Theodosius of the Kiev Caves (†1074) and the Holy Fathers of the Kiev Caves were Catholic until at least the 12th century [Bollandists; Fr. Mauricio Gordillo, S.J.]
-after 1104 not all metropolitans of Kiev were Orthodox; Catholic Metropolitans of Kiev prior to the Council of Florence include Clement Smoliatich (1147-1154), probably John IV (1164-1166), and Peter Akerovych (also his patron St. Michael of Chernigov) (1241-1246) [Fr. John Stilting, S.J.; Fr. Gordillo]
-there is no historical certainty that the following metropolitans of Kiev were Orthodox: Nicetas (1122-1126), Michael II (1130-1145), Constantine I (1156-1159), Theodore (1161-1163), Nicephorus II (1182-1198)
-even Alexander Nevsky was Catholic, at least for a while starting in 1248; his contemporary, Daniel I Romanovych of Galicia (†1264) was Catholic from 1248-1256
-Peter of Kiev (1308-1326) who resided in Moscow starting in 1325, was Catholic for quite a while (until at least 1316) but became Orthodox in 1324 at the latest [Fr. Stilting; Andrew Shipman]
-Theognostus of Kiev (1328-1353) was an anti-Palamite, and so were a considerable number of Orthodox bishops and theologians through the centuries [Fr. Martin Jugie, A.A.]
-it was solely because of Grand Duke Basil II (1425–1462) that Holy Union of Florence did not take effect in Moscow, and that probably for political reasons [Shipman; Fr. Joseph Gill, S.J.]
-except for anti-Catholic Jonah of Kiev (1503–1507), the Metropolitans of Kiev (Vilnius line) were Catholic from 1439-1521 (Isidore to Joseph Soltan), and Gregory Tsamblak (1414-1420), the rival claimant to the Orthodox Metropolitan Photius of Kiev (1408-1431), was Catholic [Fr. Stilting; DTC]
-these metropolitans were Gregory II the Bulgarian (1458-1472), Michael Drucki (1474-1480), Symeon (1481-1488), Jonah Glezna (1492-1494), St. Macarius the Hieromartyr (1495-1497), Joseph II Bolgarynovich (1498–1501), and Joseph III Soltan (1508-1521)
-Metropolitans of Kiev (Vilnius line) have been Catholic from 1595 to 1805 following the Holy Union of Brest; rival Orthodox line starting with Job Boretsky in 1620

Alleged Counter-Examples proposed by Orthodox: Old Rome
-St. Marcellinus (296-304): the unprovable charge of apostasy against St. Marcellinus, who was not a martyr, comes from unreliable sources [Johann Peter Kirsch]
-St. Liberius (352-356): the charge that Pope St. Liberius signed the Semi-Arian formula of Sirmium while in exile is untenable on a priori grounds [Fr. John Chapman, O.S.B.]
-Vigilius (537-555):
-Honorius I (625-638): [Fr. Chapman; Fr. Paul Bottala, S.J.; Dr. Warren Carroll II:252-254]
-John XXII (1316-1334): [; Dr. Carroll III:371-373]
-Sixtus V (1585-1590):

The Serbian Church
-Catholic archbishops, including St. Sava I [Bollandists; Fr. Jugie IV:373]
-Stephen Nemanya (Simeon the Myrrh-Gusher of Mt. Athos) was Catholic [Bollandists; Fr. Jugie IV:373; Fr. Horace Kinder Mann XII:33-34; Joseph Lins]

The Serbian Church went into schism starting during the reign of Stephen Uroš I (1243-1276), but Stephen Uroš II Milutin of Serbia (1282–1321) professed papal primacy in his Profession of Faith for Pope John XXII (1316-1334),{6} during the reign of Nicodemus I (1316-1324).
{6} Fr. Martin Jugie, A.A. Theologia dogmatica Christianorum orientalium ab Ecclesia Catholica dissidentium IV:373.

The Bulgarian Church
-Basil I of Tarnovo (1186-1232) was Catholic since 1204, and Joachim I of Tarnovo (1232-1246) was Catholic until 1235 [M. Lacko in NCE II:680]
-Catholic archbishops of Ohrid include Athanasius I (1596-1598), Porphyrius Palaeologos (1624-1627), Abraham Mesaps (1629-1637), and Meletius I (1637-1643) [Leo Allatius, De consensu utriusque Ecclesiæ p. 1092, cited by Siméon Vailhé in DTC 2.1:1196]

The Georgian Church
-the schism of the Georgian Church from the Catholic Church was not known until "between 1224 and 1240" [Cyril Toumanoff in NCE VI:155], during which the Catholicoi-Patriarchs of All Georgia were Arsenius III (1222-1225), George IV (1225-1230), and Arsenius IV Bulmaisisdze (1230–1240), who was followed by Nicholas II (1240-1280)

The Photian Schism
-inconsistent conduct and doctrinal attitudes of Photius

The Second Council of Lyons (1274)
-

The Council of Florence
-the untenable rejection of the union by Mark of Ephesus [Fr. Gill]

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