Thursday, August 16, 2007

Heretical Popes? No Way!

Here I will consider the orthodoxy of 25 out of the 266 popes and demonstrate why, as to whether they fell into material or formal heresy with regard to faith or morals, we can answer in the negative. Obviously popes can and have erred regarding faith and morals—I see John XXII as the best incontrovertible example--but they have not nullified the doctrine of papal infallibility, nor have they lost the charisms which prevent their falling into material or formal heresy.
1. St. Peter (32-67)
2. St. Anicetus (155-156)
3. St. Victor I (189-199)
4. St. Zephyrinus (199-217) - Pope St. Zephyrinus was not a Modalist (Sabellian) who denied the distinction of persons in the Trinity, but was negligent in addressing the heresy. Therefore St. Hippolytus, an antipope who was later reconciled to the Church and martyred via mutilation by horses, was right to criticize him.
5. St. Marcellinus (296-304)
6. Liberius (352-366)
7. St. Zosimus (417-418)
8. Vigilius (537-555) - Vigilius was orthodox and was never a Nestorian nor a teacher of Nestorianism, but as the pope is not impeccable his wavering conduct with respect to the Nestorian Three Chapters does not make a lie out of the Catholic Faith.
9. Honorius I (625-638) - Honorius I was not a Monothelite heretic but was condemned by Pope St. Leo II for his lack of fortitude in dealing with the Monothelite heresy. Honorius I charitably treated Sergius, Patriarch of Constantinople, in his response in which he did not teach Monothelitism but interpreted Sergius's deceptive explanations in a perfectly orthodox manner.
10. Stephen III (752-757)
11. John VIII (887-882)
12. Stephen VII (896-897)
13. St. Gregory VII (1073-1085)
14. Innocent III (1198-1216)
15. Boniface VIII (1294-1303) – This does not have to do with Unam Sanctum but with his treatment of his predecessor, St. Celestine V.
16. John XXII (1316-1334) - John XXII wrongly denied that the souls of the just departed have the beatific vision before the last judgment, and that the damned are not thrown into Hell until the Day of Judgment. Cardinal Orsini traveled to Bavaria and proclaimed that John XXII was a heretic. John XXII made a theological error—there is no getting around that obvious fact. Now there are two kinds of heresy: material and formal. But John XXII was not a material heretic because he simply stated his opinion in a sermon as a private individual. Nor was he a formal heretic because he immediately appointed a commission to investigate the issue. Moreover, before he died, he signed a document which states, "The souls of the just, separated from their bodies, but fully purified from their sins, are in Heaven, in Paradise, with Jesus Christ, in the company of the angels. According to common tradition, they see God and the divine essence face to face, clearly, as far as the state and condition of a soul separated from the body allow."
17. Nicholas V (1447-1455)
18. Paul V (1605-1621)
19. Urban VIII (1623-1644)
20. Benedict XIV (1740-1758)
21. Blessed Pius IX (1846-1878)
22. Pius XI (1922-1939)
23. Pius XII (1939-1958)
24. John Paul II (1978-2005)
25. Benedict XVI (2005--) - Sedevacantist Feeneyite heretic Patrick Pollock attributes 101 heresies to Benedict. He misunderstands Benedict XVI’s statements about doctrinal development, infants who die without water baptism, Vatican I and Vatican II, the Church’s relationship to non-Catholics, magisterial teachings, Allah, Jews their promised Messiah, etc.

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