Tuesday, January 10, 2006

KCA

Here is a sound argument for the existence of an an "uncaused, personal Creator of the universe, who sans creation is 'beginningless,' changeless, immaterial, timeless, spaceless, and enormously powerful and intelligent." [1] William Lane Craig, who formulated this version of the Kalam cosmological argument, has received criticism from Mark Smith, but Smith's attempted refutations of Craig are groundless. [2]

1. Whatever begins to exist has a cause of its existence. 2.The universe began to exist. 2.1 Argument based on the impossibility of an actual infinite: 2.11 An actual infinite cannot exist. 2.12 An infinite temporal regress of events is an actual infinite. 2.13 Therefore, an infinite temporal regress of events cannot exist. 2.2 Argument based on the impossibility of the formation of an actual infinite by successive addition: 2.21 A collection formed by successive addition cannot be actually infinite. 2.22 The temporal series of past events is a collection formed by successive addition. 2.23 Therefore, the temporal series of past events cannot be actually infinite. 2.3 Confirmation based on the expansion of the universe. 2.4 Confirmation based on the thermodynamic properties of the universe. 3. Therefore, the universe has a cause of its existence. 4. If the universe has a cause of its existence, then an uncaused, personal Creator of the universe exists, who sans creation is beginningless, changeless, immaterial, timeless, spaceless, and enormously powerful and intelligent. 4.1 Argument that the cause of the universe is a personal Creator: 4.11 The universe was brought into being either by a mechanically operating set of necessary and sufficient conditions or by a personal, free agent. 4.12 The universe could not have been brought into being by a mechanically operating set of necessary and sufficient conditions. 4.13 Therefore, the universe was brought into being by a personal, free agent. 4.2 Argument that the Creator sans creation is uncaused, beginningless, changeless, immaterial, timeless, spaceless, and enormously powerful and intelligent: 4.21 The Creator is uncaused. 4.211 An infinite temporal regress of causes cannot exist. (2.13, 2.23) 4.22 The Creator is beginningless. 4.221 Whatever is uncaused does not begin to exist. (1) 4.23 The Creator is changeless. 4.231 An infinite temporal regress of changes cannot exist. (2.13, 2.23) 4.24 The Creator is immaterial. 4.241 Whatever is material involves change on the atomic and molecular levels, but the Creator is changeless. (4.23) 4.25 The Creator is timeless. 4.251 In the complete absence of change, time does not exist, and the Creator is changeless. (4.23) 4.26 The Creator is spaceless. 4.261 Whatever is immaterial and timeless cannot be spatial, and the Creator is immaterial and timeless (4.24, 4.25) 4.27 The Creator is enormously powerful. 4.271 He brought the universe into being out of nothing. (3) 4.28 The Creator is enormously intelligent. 4.281 The initial conditions of the universe involve incomprehensible fine-tuning that points to intelligent design. 5. Therefore, an uncaused, personal Creator of the universe exists, who sans creation is "beginningless," changeless, immaterial, timeless, spaceless, and enormously powerful and intelligent.

Atheists have proposed various rebuttals to the Kalam cosmological argument, all of which are intellectually unsatisfying.
Physics, observations, and thermodynamics make the oscillating model of the universe impossible.
The chaotic inflationary model has been debunked.
Observation contradicts the claim posited by the vacuum fluctuation models that the universe emerged from a quantum vacuum by a fluctuation. It predicts a non-zero probability for a universe existing at every point in space-time in the quantum vacuum; therefore, in an eternal quantum vacuum, all of the spatiotemporal points would create universes, which would then collide and coalesce into an infinitely old universe, which contradicts observation from which it is inferred that the universe began about 13.7 billion years ago.
Because the quantum gravity models all depend on the use of "imaginary time" prior to 10^-43 seconds after the Big Bang, they are non-physical solutions, and thus not realistic. Upon converting the numbers back to real time, the initial singularity reappears.
Atheist Quentin Smith proposed that the universe began but was uncaused, but this is impossible. [3]

Because of the weakness of the alternative models for the origin of the universe, the Big Bang model of creation ex-nihilo (out of nothing) is still the most plausible theory.
[1] http://www.leaderu.com/offices/billcraig/docs/craig-smith1.html
[2] http://www.geocities.com/atheismsucks/contrablondie.htm
[3] http://www.leaderu.com/offices/billcraig/docs/smith.html