Tuesday, May 24, 2016

The Works of Fr. Martin Jugie, A.A. (1878-1954)

Dear readers,

Forgive me for my lack of activity on this blog, especially my lack of zeal in cleaning up so many of my posts which I wrote with great pride, no charity, and (to borrow an expression I've heard Dr. Taylor Marshall use in one of his excellent lessons) spiritual bad breath. Pray for me!

For access to works of Fr. Martin Jugie, A.A. (1878-1954) which I have been busy digitizing, email me at thebananarepublican(at)gmail(dot)com.


                                                                                                     
                                                                                           The sinner Will Raphael
                                                                                       Slave of Our Lady of Pochaev

Sunday, May 01, 2016

May: The Month of Mary

Brothers and sisters, have you consecrated yourself to Our Blessed Mother? "Do not put it off day after day" [Sir 5:7] because "now is the day of salvation" [2 Cor 2:6].
O Immaculate, Queen of Heaven and Earth, refuge of sinners and our most loving Mother, to whom there has been confided by God the whole order of Mercy: I prostrate myself before Thee, poor sinner that I am, and I supplicate Thee humbly to accept my entire being as your property and possession, and to do with me and with all the faculties of my soul and body, with my entire life, my death and my eternity, whatsoever may please Thee. Do with me as Thou would, so as to realize what is written of Thee: “She shall crush your head;” and again: “Through Thee alone have all the heresies of the world been vanquished.” May I be in Thy immaculate and most merciful hands a docile instrument to make Thee known and loved by so many tepid and mislead souls, and thus advance in the greatest manner possible the most holy Kingdom of Jesus Christ. For in truth, where Thou hast gained entrance, Thou dost obtain the grace of the conversion and sanctification of souls, since all the graces, passing through Thy hands, gush upon all of us from the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Amen.1
Our Lady of Pochaev2, St. Joseph the Worker, Sts. Maximilian Kolbe, and St. Louis de Montfort, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.

1 http://catholicgo.org/act-of-unlimited-consecration-to-the-immaculate-by-st-maximilian-maria-kolbe-o-f-m-conv/
2 More information to follow on this title of Our Lady, based on Hieronymus Strzelecki, O.S.B.M., Epitome historico de Origine, Antiquitate, de praesertim de celebratissimo Opere coronationis Thaumaturgae in Poczajoviensi Monte (1775) <https://books.google.com/books?id=VqhhAAAAcAAJ>. Pope Clement XIV of Rome (1769-1774) crowned the holy icon in recognition of its miracles in 1773 and the Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Winnipeg celebrates this crowning on May 1 <https://web.archive.org/web/20131205193558/http://www.archeparchy.ca/liturgy/calendar.htm>.

Saturday, April 02, 2016

Perpetual Mass Enrollment

Christ is risen!
"You shall love the Lord, your God, with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind. This is the greatest and the first commandment. The second is like it: You shall love your neighbor as yourself. The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments" [Matthew 22:37-40].
My brothers and sisters,

There is no greater favor you can do for someone, living or deceased, than to have the Body and Blood, Soul and Divinity of our Great God and Savior Jesus Christ offered for them in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass every day until the end of time.

Will you choose one or more of the below links and do this priceless favor for your friends and enemies? "Many souls go to Hell because they have no one to pray for them or make sacrifices for them," Our Lady told us at Fátima. Let us never cease to beg our Eucharistic Lord to give us the strength to be the ones praying and offering sacrifices for everyone we know, living and deceased--may He enable us to have Mass said for every single person we know before we die.

Carmelites
https://www.carmelitedevelopment.org/cards.php

Congregation of the Holy Cross
https://www.holycrossusa.org/requests/perpetual-prayer-enrollments/

Dominicans
Write to:
Dominican Friars' Guilds
141 East 65th Street
New York, NY  10065
212-744-2410

Franciscan Friars of the Atonement
https://www.atonementfriars.org/masses_and_prayers/perpetual_mass_enrollment.html

Missionaries of the Holy Family
https://app.etapestry.com/hosted/MissionariesoftheHolyFamil/OnlineGiving.html

Missionaries of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary
http://www.missionofsacredhearts.org/assets/1/7/Web_enrollment_form_02-04-15.pdf

Passionists
http://www.passionistgiving.org/perpetual_enrollments.aspx 

Redemptorists
https://secure.acceptiva.com/?cst=66e88b

Servites
http://gifts.servitedevelopment.org/gifts/perpetual-mass-assoc-enrollment.aspx

Take your friends and enemies to Mass, pray the Rosary with them and for them, and perform the spiritual and corporal works of mercy with them and for them.



                                                                                                      Thank you,

                                                                                           The sinner Will Raphael
                                                                                       Slave of Our Lady of Pochaev

Saturday, February 27, 2016

Innocenzo Venchi, O.P. on Savonarola's Beatification Cause (1996)

Feel free to email me anytime thebananarepublican[at]gmail[dot]com - pray for me, a sinner, and forgive me, all you readers with comments which I have not yet published and answered.

Amateur translation of Innocenzo Venchi, O.P. "Iniziative dell'Ordine Domenicano per promuovere la causa di beatificazione del Ven. fra Girolamo Savonarola O.P.," Studi Savonaroliani Verso il V centenario ed. Gian Carlo Garfagnini (Florence, 1996), 93–97.

When done, will post here advising of completion.

93
INITIATIVE OF THE DOMINICAN ORDER TO PROMOTE THE BEATIFICATION CAUSE OF VEN. FRA GIROLAMO SAVONAROLA O.P.



Monday, December 28, 2015

Nobody's Perfect

Only God is perfect in that He loves Himself as much as He can be loved; only the saints in Heaven are perfect in that they love God as much as they as creatures can love Him: their love always tends toward God "as much as it can." But Christ would not command us to be perfect if it were not possible to be perfect in this life in some sense: there are people in this world who are perfect because they follow Matthew 5:48 by cooperating with God's grace to remove everything (mortal sin) from their affections contrary to love, and everything that would prevent their "mind's affections from tending wholly to God," even though (excepting our Lord and our Lady and possibly Sts. Joseph and John the Baptist{2}) their affections might not always in fact tend to God.

Notes & References
{1} St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, II:II, q. 184, art. 2, resp. <http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3184.htm#article2>.
{2}

Wednesday, December 23, 2015

Nutrition Nuggets

You have to choose wisely who you listen to in the fitness world if you want to achieve your goals (e.g., improved body composition, higher free testosterone count, greater relative strength, heightened VO2 max, improved sleep quality and duration, etc.), and you should not chase a million goals at once. Throughout his works, Nate Miyaki stresses that instead of blindly adhering to "dogmas and systems," you must patiently "test and assess" what works and what does not work for you. For example, I maximize my productivity, endocrine health, performance in the gym, and body composition while waiting 5-7 hours after rising before I consume any calories and while eating a couple of large meals per day, whereas you, the reader, may feel, look, and perform at your best while eating breakfast and having smaller meals throughout the day. Some people are healthiest eating a higher amount of fat relative to carbohydrate in their diet, whereas for others it's the other way around. Some folks can achieve excellent body composition and hormonal health and experience great satiety (fullness between meals) while eating under 1 gram of protein per pound of bodyweight, whereas other folks may need to eat 1 gram per pound of bodyweight or more to maximize satiety and ensure long-term adherence. Don't get suckered into fitness magazine myths. For example, I've maintained low levels of body fat without hours of cardio and while regularly eating 1,000+ calorie feasts right before going to bed--this goes against the "dogmas" to which Nate Miyaki refers (You may have heard clichés like "Don't eat after 8pm because you will store everything you eat then as body fat!"). With God's help, avoid obsessive tendencies: in the long run, God willing, you will be able to achieve and maintain the health, physique, and performance you want without neurotically counting calories and macronutrients.

Consult with your physician to see if you have his permission to take any of these nutritional nuggets and test them on yourself for the promotion of your physical, mental, and social health.  You, as the reader, agree to the fullest extent permitted by law at your own cost and expense, to defend, indemnify and hold me harmless from and against any and all claims, loss (including attorney fees, witnesses' fees and all court costs) damages, expense and liability (including statutory liability), resulting from injury and/or death of any person or damage to or loss of any property arising out of and to the extent caused in whole or in part directly or indirectly, by any negligent or wrongful act, error or omission or breach of this agreement on the part of you, the reader, or any of your employees, agents, servants, or officers. I am not a physician and I present the information in this post for educational purposes only.

I will also share what my favorite experts do when it comes to training/recovery/sleep and supplementation.

Popes, Saints, and Scholars on Savonarola

I wish you a very Merry Christmas. May our Lord and our God bring you ever closer to Him as you celebrate His Nativity this year, and may He grant you and your family many more years to celebrate this sublime mystery together. Below I will present the statements of Popes (canonized or not), Saints/Blesseds/Venerables/Servants of God, and scholars on the Servant of God Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498),{1} with citations of primary sources when possible, as is customary here. How else is the reader supposed to accept an attribution as genuine? Let this blog be a sanctuary from the poisoned well of spurious or specious quotations from the popes, saints, and Fathers, which would carry great authority if only they were independently verifiable by the reader.

As often as possible, I will demonstrate biases of these sources. E.g., "Catholic,""Orthodox who was a disciple of Savonarola but upon Savonarola's death left the Catholic Church and composed writings against her," "Lutheran," "Modernist tendencies," "lifelong disciple of Savonarola," etc.

Notes
 {1}


Saturday, December 19, 2015

Calixtines (G. Bareille)

This is a very rough translation of the article "Calixtines" by G. Bareille in the 1905 Dictionnaire de théologie catholique 2:1364-1369 (Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1905), pages 679-681 of the PDF <https://ia800301.us.archive.org/21/items/dictionnairedet02pt1vaca/dictionnairedet02pt1vaca.pdf>. Holy Mother Church teaches in its Catechism, "1390 Since Christ is sacramentally present under each of the species, communion under the species of bread alone makes it possible to receive all the fruit of Eucharistic grace. For pastoral reasons this manner of receiving communion has been legitimately established as the most common form in the Latin rite. But 'the sign of communion is more complete when given under both kinds, since in that form the sign of the Eucharistic meal appears more clearly.'222 This is the usual form of receiving communion in the Eastern rites. 222General Instruction of the Roman Missal 240."  The Servant of God Fr. John A. S. A. Hardon, S.J. observed, "Not all Calixtines, however, were heretics. They could be Catholics who took advantage of the Church's concession to receive the chalice but also believed that Holy Communion under both forms was not necessary for salvation." In that sense, you or I could be considered Calixtines because of our habit of receiving the Most Precious Blood of Christ when we attend the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass.


To Bareille, who was Professor of Patrology at the Catholic University of Toulouse, Eternal Memory!

Calixtines
This name, taken from the Latin word calix, used to describe, among supporters of John Huss, who in the fifteenth century, reducing the minimum of their claims to four articles, vindicated especially the use of the chalice or communion under both species for the laity. Communion sub utraque was not unknown in Christian practice, see COMMUNION UNDER BOTH SPECIES [Vol. 3, col. ####; PDF ###-###], but the Church had long prohibited it because of its disadvantages. Huss himself, at least in its early days, had not thought to resume this use without the express consent of the Church. But some of his supporters, under the inspiration of Jacobel, vindicated the right to practice it. And the Council of Constance, faithful to the prescriptions of the past sages and suspecting moreover, not without reason, that this innovation masked some dogmatic error on the real presence, condemned in its thirteenth general session, June 15, 1415. [Gian Domenico] Mansi [Catholic], t . XXVII, col. 726-728 [PDF ###]; Hardouin, t. VIII, col. 380-382; [Karl Josef von] Hefele [Catholic], Histoire des conciles, French trans. Paris, 1876, t. X, p. 477-478. But neither the Archbishop of Prague or the king of Bohemia, Wenceslas could enforce the decree of the council. Jacobel composed a violent diatribe against the Fathers of Constance he called "the doctors of the use." And Huss, changing of attitude that prisoner, hastened to write to his disciple Haulick, who had replaced the flesh in Bethlehem, not oppose the use of the chalice, not to fight Jacobel, and his friend Christian to adjure Bohemian nobility of having to defend a use which the council had to ban contrary to the teaching of the Gospel and the primitive tradition. The execution of Huss, which occurred on the following July 6, aroused the indignation of supporters of the chalice and excited a bloody revolt in Bohemia. Despite the intervention of the Bishop of Leitomysl, who was powerless to avert the storm, the nobility sent a protest to the council, notifying its refusal to obey. The use of the chalice was maintained and widespread; it became a rallying sign, the symbol of Calixtines.

Saturday, November 21, 2015

Savonarola: Heretic or Saint? (Gundolf Gieraths, O.P.)

A rough translation of Gundolf Gieraths, O.P., "3. Ketzer oder Heiliger?," Savonarola: Ketzer oder Heiliger? (Freiburg im Bresau: Herder, 1961), 39-59.


Saturday, September 26, 2015

Jourdan Hurtaud, O.P.: "Lettres de Savonarole aux princes chrétiens pour la réunion d'un concile" (Translation)

Full translation expected by Monday 10/12, God willing -- stay tuned. Critical commentary to follow.

Jourdan Hurtaud, O.P.: "Lettres de Savonarole aux princes chrétiens pour la réunion d'un concile," Revue Thomiste 7, no. 44 (1900), 631-674 <https://books.google.com/books?id=WaRJAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA631>. 

The Letters of Savonarola to the Christian Princes for the Assembly of a Council

631
The pages devoted by Louis Pastor (1) to the Florentine reformer and the fair or harsh responses it has attracted poses again, not only in the heart of Piagnoni who faithfully guard the fervent cult of his memory, but to the opinion of the Catholic world, the Savonarola question. For four centuries, the trial is debated and the cause is still pending. Our intention is not, here at least, to throw us in full scrimmage and enter the intense debates; we only want to draw attention to one of the parts of the trial, which, we believe, has not been interpreted so far as it should be, neither by the most resolute opponents of the Frate, nor even by his most convinced apologists. We refer to the Letters to Christian princes for the meeting of a council. These letters, in the plan, were to be five in number, addressed to the Emperor, the King of France, the King and Queen of Spain, the King of England, and King of Hungary. Only the first three have been preserved. We give here in its entirety the letter to the Emperor; from the other two we adduce the passages relating to the council. From comparing different the literal interpretation and theological doctrine they express or to which they refer become more obvious. (1) History of the Popes From the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. V and VI.  


Wednesday, September 09, 2015

Tsarevich Dimitry of Uglich Died Accidentally

Tsarevich Dimitry Ivanovich of Uglich (10/19/1582-5/15/1591), the youngest son of Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible, accidentally killed himself by stabbing himself with a knife during an epileptic fit.

Fr. Francis Dvornik says, "The reports on the death of the real Dmitrij were re-examined by G. Vernadsky (see Bibl.). He has rightly shown that the tsarevich's death was accidental and that Boris Godunov was unjustly accused of his murder. A complete bibliography on this problem is given in his study published in the Oxford Slav. Papers. On the spread of this legend see also A. A. Rudakov’s study in Ist oriceskie Zapiski, 12 (1941), pp. 154-283" (The Slavs in European History and Civilization, Rutgers University Press, 1962, 486 n. 1).

George Vernadsky points out that the testimony of the people who were in the courtyard at the time of the tsarevich's death ("Vasilisa Volokhova, Irina Tuchkova, Maria Samoylova, and the four boys, Dimitry's playmates") is to be preferred to the testimony of "witnesses" who were not (Tsaritsa Maria Feodorovna Nagaya and Mikhail Nagoy) -- see (The Death of the Tsarevich Dimitry: A Reconsideration of the Case, Oxford Slavonic Papers, Vol. V, 1954, 15-17). The Stledstevennoe Delo, the official investigative proceedings, is a more reliable source than the 17th century Russian chronicles (op. cit., 19).

The Catholic tsar False Dmitriy I was not the real Dmitry, nor was he the renegade monk Grigoriy Otrepyev, but he was not strictly an impostor (Thurston, Herbert. "Impostors." The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 9 Sept. 2015 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07698b.htm>); due to his upbringing by the boyars he genuinely believed he was the son of Ivan the Terrible (George Vernadsky, A History of Russia, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969, 116-117).

The above account renders unworthy of belief the story related by Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović of Ohrid and Žiča (Prologue from OhridJune 3), who is commemorated by Orthodox Christians on May 3, that Boris Gudonov murdered Dimitry. If Bishop Nikolaj meant that Dimitry posthumously appeared to a monk informing him that he was murdered by Boris, we must reject this alleged vision as unhistorical. I invite the reader to suggest whether a serious investigation by the Congregation for the Causes of Saints would affirm whether any of the alleged posthumous miracles by Dimitry are what Fr. Louis Monden, S.J. would call "major prodigies" with intrinsic apologetic value which would "by [their] context or circumstances suggest or confirm" an interpretation of doctrine opposed to the teachings of the Catholic Church; cf. my article "On Miracles Outside the Catholic Church," n. 7.

Symeon the New Theologian on Filioque

Glory to God in the highest.

The pneumatological teaching of Symeon the New Theologian (949-1012) is not antithetical to Filioque.

See Jacques-Paul Migne, Patrologia Graeca 120:331-332, where Symeon says that the Holy Spirit "proceeds from the Father": "Deitas namque cum sit superessentialis, etiam et sola est immutabilis et invariabilis; estque tanquam mens, rationem et spiritum habens dicitrque Pater, Filii Pater (qui est quasi ratio) et productor Spiritus (2), quemadmodum item genitor rationis. Et cum Pater Deus nominator, simul cum Filio, ac Spiritu intelligitur. Quando demum Spiritus sanctus appellatur Deus, intelligitur eum ex Patre procedentem, etiam Filii spiritum esse, unione et discretion inexplicabili." The scholarly note (2) says that just as our Lord does not, in John 15:26, exclude the Filioque (cf. St. Augustine the Great, Homilies on John 99:6,8 and Against Maximus 2:14 [PL 42:770]), neither do Symeon's words exclude Filioque. Like some of the Church Fathers, Symeon simply makes the positive affirmation that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father, without making the Photian denial that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Son. Many Greek Fathers who made this simple affirmation also explicitly affirmed Filioque.

Jaroslav Pelikan is indefinite as to whether Symeon took the Catholic or Orthodox position on Filioque: "Although Simeon’s treatment of such dogmatic questions as the Filioque did not have a polemical tone and sometimes seemed rather confused, he demanded that the norm of teaching be 'the orthodox dogma of the apostolic and catholic church'" (The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700), Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977, 256-257).

Symeon's feast is March 12 in the Orthodox churches (Hussey, J. M. "Symeon the New Theologian, Monk of the Studion." New Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 13, 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. 671-672). Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI rightly referred to him as "holy," though I have yet to confirm some Catholic brothers' references (here, here, and here) of his presence on some Eastern Catholic calendars. Constantinople was in union with Rome during Symeon's life, as the reader will understand if he consults these writings:
(1) Martin Jugie, A.A., Le schisme byzantin; aperçu historique et Doctrinal (Paris: P. Lethielleux, 1941)
(2) Siméon Vailhe, "Constantinople, Église de," Dictionnaire de Théologie Catholique (Paris 1907), 3.2

I will do further research before October to see if any data contradicts my thesis, and to find any writings of Symeon that shed more light on his views on the procession of the Holy Spirit and on Rome. Constantinople was in union with Rome during Symeon's life, as the reader will understand if he consults the writings of Martin Jugie, A.A. and Simeon Vailhé. I will dig through Pelikan's work, the introductory notes in Migne, and the bibliography in Hussey's encyclopedia article, among other sources.

Thursday, August 29, 2013

Seraphim of Sarov (1754-1833)


Pope St. John Paul II the Great of Rome, Crossing the Threshold of Hope (New York: Random House, 1994), 17-18 <https://books.google.com/books?id=feAMAAAAQBAJ&pg=17#v=onepage&q&f=false>: "Much has been written about prayer, and further, prayer has been widely experienced in the history of mankind, especially in the history of Israel and Christianity. Man achieves the fullness of prayer not when he expresses himself, but when he lets God be most fully present in prayer. The history of mystical prayer in the East and West attests to this: Saint Francis, Saint Teresa of Avila, Saint John of the Cross, Saint Ignatius of Loyola, and, in the East, for example, Saint Seraphim of Sarov and many others."


Pope St. John Paul II the Great of Rome, Apostolic Visit to Azerbaijan and Bulgaria, Pilgrimage to the Holy Monastery of Rila (3/25/2002): "Having been enabled to see the world through God’s eyes, and become ever more configured to Christ, religious men and women move towards the ultimate end for which man was created: divinization, sharing in the life of the Trinity. Grace makes this possible only to those who — through prayer, tears of compunction and charity — open themselves to the Holy Spirit, as we are reminded by another great monk of these beloved Slav lands, Seraphim of Sarov (cf. Colloquio con Motovilov III, in P. Evdokimov, Serafim di Sarov, Uomo dello Spirito, Bose 1996, pp. 67-81)." <http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/speeches/2002/may/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_20020525_rila-bulgaria.html>

Louis Monden, S.J., Signs and Wonders: A Study of the Miraculous Element in Religion (New York: Desclée, 1966), 306-307: "Let us study, for instance, the life of St. Seraphim of Sarov (died in 1833), the greatest miracle-worker of the 19th century. His biography, no doubt, presents an impressive number of facts which any Catholic would readily recognize as proofs of a supernatural intervention of God. He would, however, recognize just as readily that none of them qualifies as a major miracle, that is, one with an intrinsic apologetic value and of the kind we have so far found absent everywhere except in the Catholic Church. There are two particularly striking instances among the cures attributed to him: the cases of Michael Manturov and Judge Nikolai Motovilov. Both are cases of functional paralysis, which, judging by the way the illness and the manner of the cure are described, could have been cured, medically speaking, through spontaneous psychotherapy with religious motivation. At the Lourdes Bureau cases like these would not even be considered."

Martin Jugie, A.A., Le schisme byzantin, aperçu historique et doctrinal (Paris, P. Lethielleux, 1941), 447-460, esp. 457:

En 1903, la canonisation de l’ascète Séraphin de Sarov († 1833) fut due déjà a la violenté expresse de l’empereur Nicolas II et de sa femme l’impératrice Alexandra Féodorovna, malgré un obstacle qui paraissant insurmontable. Le corps de Séraphin, en effet, n’avait pas été trouvé conservé. Or, le grande miracle qui est à l’origine de la plupart des canonisations historiques est l’incorruption du cadavre. Lorsque l’historien Golubinskii, dans l’ouvrage signalé plus haut, prétendit que cette marquée de sainteté n’était pas obligatoire, la censure ecclésiastique le mit à l’index.1 Mais sous la pression du tsar, et surtout de la tsarine, l’opposition des milieux ecclésiastiques cessa. La condamnation portée contre l’ouvrage de Goloubinskii fut levée et l’on procéda solennellement, en 1903, à la canonisation du saint anachorète, célèbre par ses exploits ascétiques, son oraison, ses visions extatiques et ses enseignements spirituels.2 Cette canonisation, qui ressemblait à un coup de force de l’autorité impériale, fit scandale en Russie. En tout cas, il faut la considérer comme une exception dans l’histoire des canonisations russes officielles.

... 1. La famille impériale attribuait des grâces de guérison déjà l’attouchement du manteau du saint anachorète. L’impératrice insista pour le faire canoniser, espérant obtenir par son intercession la naissance d’un fils. Elle put bientôt se croire exaucée. Exactement un an après la canonisation de Séraphin, elle émit au monde le tsarévitch Alexis.
Albert Michel, "Sainteté," Dictionnaire de théologie catholique (Paris, Letouzey et Ané, 1939), 14.1:####: "Il y ajoute celui de Seraphin de Serov, moine russe,modele de haute perfection dans l'Eglise orthodoxe. Ces cas, quelle que puisse etre l'appreciation exacte à porter sur le degre de sainteté qu'ils comportent, ne sont pas à nier. Si l' axiome : "Hors de l'Eglise, pas de salut », ne nons autorise pas à nier Ia possibilite du salut a ceux qui paraissent vivre hors de l'Eglise, ainsi en est-il du jugement a porter sur Ia sainteté qui, à ses degres divers, est Ia condition essentielle du salut. Si l'homme peut, meme sans Ie sacrement de baptême, assurer son salut eternel en appartenant simplement à l'ame et, par Ie desir au moins implicite, au corps de l'Eglise, ainsi pourra-t-il, surtout s'il est baptise et s'il a Je secours des sacrements validement reçus, vivre de la vie de Ia grace et meme en vivre abondamment. ... D'ailleurs, la Providence veille, semble-t-il, ace que ces cas exceptionnels de sainteté supérieure et héroïque se manifestent toujours en des personnages attires vers l'Eglise romaine. Sundar Singh déclinait positivement l'appartenance à toute confession particulière. Ses vertus ne sauraient donc autoriser aucune confession non catholique : elles valent par ce que valent les principes de vie spirituelle qui les ont inspires. La sainteté d'un Séraphin de Sarov est une sainteté empruntée, apparentée à la sainteté catholique. Prés d'elle allaient se retremper des âmes cherchant des leçons de vie meilleure, la paix de la conscience, une aide contre les tentations de l'esprit et de la chair. Ceux qui auraient été tentes d'aller plus avant et de s'inquiéter de la véritable Eglise du Christ auraient trouve dans la fréquentation d'une telle sainteté un motif, non de se fixer dans l'hétérodoxie, mais de se rapprocher de l'Eglise romaine, dont les prérogatives « leur apparaitraient d'autant mieux, qu'ils auraient commence de gouter le Maitre. » En examinant avec soin la sainteté de l'ermite de Sarov, on constate qu’elle relève per se des principes formules dans la seule Eglise catholique : "Les différences, dit excellemment le P. de Grandmaison, portent sur des modalités par lesquelles  l'Esprit s'adapte et s’attempère à des races diverses; pour le fond, et, plus manifestement encore pour l'élément de choix et de discréation qui juge et hiérarchisé les opérations de la vie spirituelle supérieure, un fidèle catholique peut presque dire : «  Tout est nôtre! … »"

Aidan Nichols, O.P., Rome and the Eastern Churches (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2010), 134: "Again, Catholics of the Byzantine rite do, I believe, commemorate saints canonized by the Orthodox during the period of schism, and even dedicate parish churches to them, like the one recently erected under the patronage of Seraphim of Sarov (a nineteenth century Russian hermit) in Toronto, Canada, but I have not heard of Uniate veneration of an Orthodox saint instrumental in the making or continuance of schism, such as the fifteenth century Greek bishop Mark of Ephesus." Fr. Nichols's book was first published in 1992. For more info on the parish in question see <http://www.byzcath.org/forums/ubbthreads.php/topics/45221/St%20Seraphim%20of%20Sarov%20Catholic>.

-Seraphim's conversation with Nicholas Motovilov (http://orthodoxinfo.com/praxis/wonderful.aspx):

-2007 Ruthenian Typicon for Tuesday, January 2: "In the Russian Church, the Venerable and God-bearing Father Seraphim, Wonderworker of Sarov." For more info on this Typicon, see http://web.archive.org/web/20081221115757/http://www.patronagechurch.com/Typicon/typicon.htm.

-Servant of God Catherine Doherty (Ekaterina Fyodorovna Kolyschkine de Hueck Doherty: Madonna House Apostolate foundress) [8/15/1896-12/14/1985] - "She had a great love, of course, forthe saints of Holy Russia (she had an icon of St. Seraphim of Sarov over her bed)" -- Fr. Robert Wild, Catherine Doherty, Servant of God: The Signifiance of Her Life for the Church, and the Present State of Her Cause for Canonization (Combermere, Ontario, Canada: Madonna House Publications, 2005) 47 <http://www.catherinedoherty.org/pdf/Robert_Wild_-_Catherine_Doherty_Servant_of_God.pdf>; see also <http://www.catherinedoherty.org/articles/2004/09/does-the-orthodox-church-canonize-people/> and note that Catherine was also a fan of the writings of Silouan the Athonite <http://www.catherinedoherty.org/articles/2011/11/catherine-and-the-russian-religious-renaissance/>

-At St. Michael's Russian Catholic Church (266 Mulberry Street, New York, NY  10012) there is an icon of Seraphim of Sarov and he is commemorated as a saint in a liturgical setting on January 14. This parish links to <http://www.catholic.ru/kalend/index.html> as the official Russian Catholic calendar; I cannot track down any archived copies of January at <https://web.archive.org/web/20030412122807*/http://www.catholic.ru/kalend/index.html>

-The encyclopedia at the Russian Catholic website lists Seraphim as a saint with a feast day of January 14; see <http://catholic.ru/modules.php?name=Encyclopedia&op=content&tid=2140> and the English translation at <https://translate.google.com/translate?sl=ru&tl=en&js=y&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fcatholic.ru%2Fmodules.php%3Fname%3DEncyclopedia%26op%3Dcontent%26tid%3D2140&edit-text=>

-Fr. Raniero Cantalamessa, O.F.M. Cap., Preacher to the Papal Household, Penitential liturgy for the Roman Curia in preparation for the Jubilee, Meditation (2/21/2000): "I must confess, I too have asked me this question, but I have given up thinking on this line further, because it is too easy to determine the sins of others or an institution, which one does not belong to himself. But it is at least in this context, completely unnecessary, because that is anyone helped. Anyone on you approach to defending itself first of all, and rightly so. I always think of a maxim of St. Seraphim of Sarov: "It is easy to preach against the guilt of others; that's like putting down throwing stones from a church tower. But it is difficult to tackle the own fault, that's like putting up wearing those stones from the bottom on his shoulders back to the top of the steeple." <http://www.vatican.va/jubilee_2000/jubilevents/jub_curia_20000221_cantalamessa_ge.html>; trans. <https://translate.google.com/translate?sl=de&tl=en&js=y&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.vatican.va%2Fjubilee_2000%2Fjubilevents%2Fjub_curia_20000221_cantalamessa_ge.html&edit-text=>

-Theologico-Historical Commission, "THE EARTH IS FILLED WITH YOU SPIRIT, LORD":
"This text, for now, intends to be an instrument of reflection and prayer, until the gift of the Spirit penetrates the life of every believer. According to the words of Jesus in fact, if the terrestrial father grants the prayers of his own children «how much more the Father in Heaven will give the Spirit to those who pray to him» (Lk 11, 13). Prayer is so important for the gift of the Spirit that there exists a variation of the Our Father, followed by many Fathers of the Church, where, at the point of the invocation «May your Kingdom come - we read - may your Spirit come unto us and purify us» (cf. Gregorio of Nissa, Homily on the Our Father, III, 6). It is in this prospective that we can understand, then, the words of a Russian saint of the last century, Serafino of Sarov (1833): «The true end of Christian life is the acquisition of the Holy Spirit. Prayer, fasting, vigils, charity, these are only means to acquire the Holy Spirit».
<http://www.vatican.va/jubilee_2000/magazine/documents/ju_mag_01091997_p-45_en.html>

-Eleuterio F. Fortino, Ecumenical Commission, "LIFE IN THE SPIRIT IN THE EASTERN AND WESTERN TRADITIONS": 
A publication in St. Petersburg presented by Fr. Tecle Vetrali, professor at the Ecumenical Institute "San Bernardino" in Venice, could be taken as a synthesis of the symposium itself. It deals with an experience of communion started between the Patriarch of Moscow and the Franciscan Order of Brothers Minor. The professor said: «This fraternal relationship has exposed many affinities between the Orthodox and Franciscan spiritualities. The correspondence does not reduce to the psychological or cultural field. The communion is profound and touches the same roots of existence: it is born from the same Holy Spirit, who introduces us into communion with the one Christ and the one Father, illuminating us with the one Gospel». The title of the publication is: «Multiple experiences of the one Gospel. Testimonies of the Russian and Franciscan Spiritualities». The book was written by both Catholics and Orthodox and presents some eminent saints from both traditions: Sergio of Radonez, Serafino of Sarov, Elisabeth of Essen, Nicolas of Mira, Francis of Assisi, Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua. The biographies are preceded by a brief history and characterization of Russian monastic and Catholic Franciscan life. The relator concluded: «This book is presented as an exchange of gifts between two Churches and two spiritual traditions which yearn for communion and unity».
The division between Catholics and the Orthodox has in fact also contributed to a profound wound in the recognition of sanctity. The calendars of the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church are different, except for the saints common in the first century. In particular, the saints canonized after the division are absent. This aporia in veneration is based on theological presuppositions and necessitates a solution in the realm of establishing full communion. The ecclesial division has sliced into the communion of saints, at least in terms of their recognition for veneration. This makes the contradiction generated by the division more evident.
The relations which the Catholic Church has established with other Christians since the Second Vatican Council have, in addition to the growth of communion and fraternity, enabled us to discover what God is bringing about in the members of other Churches and ecclesial communities. The Holy Father has made a theological and spiritual elegy of this. «In a theocentric vision, we Christians already have a common Martyrology» (UUS, 84). In fact, «The witness to Christ borne even to the shedding of blood has become a common inheritance of Catholics, Orthodox, Anglicans and Protestants» (TMA, 37). Pope John Paul II desires that the «Christian testimony» given particularly in this century - in the time of Nazism, communism, dictatorships in various parts of the world - are not forgotten, but rather are recognized, are placed forward in such a way as to become examples to imitate. This has an ecumenical value which goes beyond its theological conceptualization. «Perhaps the most convincing form of ecumenism is the ecumenism of the saints and of the martyrs», affirms the Holy Father in the same place. «The communio sanctorum speaks louder than the things which divide us».
<http://www.vatican.va/jubilee_2000/magazine/documents/ju_mag_01111997_p-58_en.html>

Archimandrite Lazarus Moore, An Extraordinary Peace: St. Seraphim Flame of Sarov [a.k.a. Saint Seraphim of Sarov: A Spiritual Biography] (Anaphora Press, 2009), 238-239: "But if Father Seraphim spoke of the superiority of Orthodoxy to Old Ritualism, still more did he consider it superior to Roman Catholicism. 'He urged us,' we read in the Diveyev Chronicle, 'to stand firmly for the truth of the dogmas of the Orthodox Church, giving as an example St. Mark of Ephesus who showed unshakable zeal in defense of the Eastern Catholic [Orthodox] faith at the Council of Florence. He himself gave various instructions on Orthodoxy, explaining its essence and stressing that it alone contained the truth of Christ's faith in its integrity and purity. He also gave instructions as to how to defend it.'" Ibid. 242-243, on the vision allegedly experienced "in the early 1920’s, [by someone from] a noble family of Protestants in Alsace": "'Suddenly I saw [St.] Francis [of Assisi] himself coming towards me, and with him a little old man like a patriarch, bent but radiant,' she said indicating thereby his old age and venerable appearance. He was all in white. She felt frightened, but they came quite near her and Francis said; 'My daughter, you seek the true Church. It is there, where he is. It supports everyone, and does not require support from anyone.' The white Elder remained silent and only smiled approvingly at the words of Francis. … When she visited his room to see whether he was comfortably settled, she saw there a small Icon and recognized in it the Elder whom she had seen, in her light sleep, with Francis. Astonished and alarmed she asked: 'Who is he, that little old man?' 'St. Seraphim, our Orthodox saint,' answered the workman. Then she understood the meaning of the words of St. Francis about the truth being in the Orthodox Church."
Update 3/5/2016: I will try to find this in the Chronicles of :
(a) pre-1903: http://www.4udel.nne.ru/library/books/letopis
(b) 1903-1927: http://www.4udel.nne.ru/library/books/916/918

Wednesday, August 28, 2013

Metropolitan Gregory Tsamblak of Kiev (1414-1420)

-http://www.pravenc.ru/text/Григорий Цамблак.html

-Francis J. Thomson, Gregory Tsamblak - the Man and the Myths (Ghent: Ghent University, Dept. of Slavonic and East European Studies, 1998): http://books.google.com/books/about/Gregory_Tsamblak_the_Man_and_the_Myths.html?id=nNIkHQAACAAJ

-Muriel Heppell, The Ecclesiastic Career of Gregory Camblak (Verlag, 1979), 134 pp.: http://books.google.com/books/about/The_Ecclesiastic_Career_of_Gregory_Cambl.html?id=1OjDtgAACAAJ

-rival of the schismatic Metropolitan Photius of Kiev (1408-1431)


-Mgr. Julian Pelesz, Geschichte der Union der ruthenischen Kirche Mit Rome (Würzburg-Wien, 1881), vol. 1, 361-365 (PDF pages 373-377):
-In 1418 Gregory I Tsamblak submitted to Pope Martin V of Rome (1417-1431) at the 16th Ecumenical Council (Constance 1414-1418) [Joseph Gill, S.J., The Council of Florence (Cambridge University Press, 2011), 25-27].
-According to Fr. Martin Jugie, Theologia dogmatica christianorum orientalium ab ecclesia catholica dissidentium (Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 19##), vol. 4, 333, Gregory Tsamblak wrote a Catholic exposition of Our Lord's words "Thou art Peter..." (Mt 16:18):
Gregorius Tsamblacus, ex Serbia oriundus, qui metropolitan Kioviensis fuit, eodem fere sensu ac Catholici evangelicum textum Tu es Petrus interpretatur, Petrumque nuncupat fidei petram, regni clavigerum, orbis præfectum4. ...
4. Macarius Bulgakov, op. cit., t. V, p. 457-458.
-Francis Dvornik, The Slavs in European History and Civilization (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1962) 172: Gregory "composed, among other works, twenty-four homilies and a panegyric on Euthymius [Orthodox Patriarch of Trnovo and Bulgaria] and Cyprian [Orthodox Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus']. His biography of the Serbian king, Stephen Uroš II, deserves to be mentioned. The biography of St. Romil attributed to him was actually written by a hermit named Gregory."
Note: Stephen II professed papal primacy in his Profession of Faith for Pope John XXII (1316-1334), during the reign of Nicodemus I (1316-1324), according to Fr. Martin Jugie, A.A. Theologia dogmatica Christianorum orientalium ab Ecclesia Catholica dissidentium IV:373.
-Dvornik 174: "Another life of [Stephen] Uroš III was written, as mentioned above, by Gregory Camblak of Bulgaria."
WRH:
-Dvornik 226-227: Vitold "induced his Orthodox bishops to elect, in 1415, the Bulgarian Gregory Camblak as metropolitan of Kiev. The Metropolitan Photius of Moscow protested, and the Patriarch of Constantinople, who had refused all Vitold's requests for an independent metropolitan, excommunicated Gregory. This plan may have originated in Jagiello's and Vitold's western policy. They hoped that the presence of the new metropolitan of Kiev and of all Russia at the Council of Constance (1415) would provide incontrovertible evidence that there was no reason why the Teutonic Order should be allowed to continue its activity in Prussia: not only had all pagans in those parts been converted, but the Poles and Lithuanians were also bringing back to Rome the Russian schismatics. The whole plan misfired. The learned Bulgarian refused to back their polical plans and turned down the proposals of the council for reunion. After his death (1419), the Muscovite metropolitan continued to exercise his jurisdiction over the Lithuanian Orthodox."
WRH: Dvornik implies that Gregory was Orthodox; this contradicts Jugie and Gill, whose work testifies that Gregory was Catholic after the Council of Constance. In the footnotes to this section of the chapter, Dvornik refers to Albert Maria Ammann, S.J. Abriss der Ostlawischen Kirchengeschichte, Vienna 1950, 73-129; I have to comb this section to find any relevant info that may answer the question of Gregory's ecclesiastical allegiance.
-Oscar Halecki, From Florence to Brest (1439-1596), 2nd. ed., (Archon Books, 1968), 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 34, 37, 44:
28: Patriarch Joseph II of Constantinople excommunicated Gregory Tsamblak, as did his predecessor the Orthodox Patriarch Euthymius II of Constantinople.
31: "... the spectacular audience of the Metropolitan of Kiev seems not to have been followed by any further negotiations with him, and ... soon after his return from Constance Tsamblak disappeared, maybe retiring to a Moldavian monastery.70 ... 70 This is the hypothesis of [A.I.] Yatsimirsky (see above, note 54 [Grigoriy Tsamblak, Petersburg 1904]); see also Chodyrnicki, 47 note 4."
-Dmytro Blazejowskyj, Hierarchy of the Kyivan Church (861-1990) (Ed. Univ. Cath. Ucr. Clementis Papae, Opera N. 72, Sacrum Ucrainae Millenium, No. 3.), 90-91:
-Roger Aubert, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques. Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 2000-2003, vol. 28, cols. 1494-1501: "Shortly before his death (September 1406), Metropolitan Cyprian called his nephew Gregory (cf. 52. CAMBLAC Gregory, supra, XXI, 1486-88) to travel to Kiev with the intent to ensure his succession. But Cyprian died before the arrival of Gregory and the Patriarch of Constantinople appointed a Greek Photius (1408-1431) to replace it. The new Grand Prince of Lithuania, Vitovt, refused to recognize this and he tried to detach the bishoprics of his dominions within the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan of Moscow by electing Gregory as Metropolitan of Kiev with residence in Vilna. The Patriarch of Constantinople excommunicated him, and Gregory, at the request of Vitovt, led a delegation to the Lithuanian-Russian Orthodox Council of Constance (his position in favor of union with Rome is not clear)."

-English Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregory_Tsamblak):
-Polish Wikipedia (http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grzegorz_Camb%C5%82ak):
-Ukrainian Wikipedia (http://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B3%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%96%D0%B9_%D0%A6%D0%B0%D0%BC%D0%B1%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%BA):
-Russian Wikipedia (http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B3%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%A6%D0%B0%D0%BC%D0%B1%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%BA):
-Romanian Wikipedia (http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grigore_%C8%9Aamblac):
-http://ziarullumina.ro/documentar/mitropolitul-grigorie-tamblac-un-adevarat-ambasador-al-ortodoxiei:

-Popes were Gregory XII (1406-1415; †1417) and Martin V of Rome (1417-1431)
-Greek patriarchs of Constantinople were Euthymius II (1410-1416) and Joseph II (1416-1439), who died a sincere Catholic [AASS 8:I:184F-186E (210-212)]
-Titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople was Jean de La Rochetaillée (1412-1423; †1437)

Greek Neo-Martyrs (Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J.)

I found Fr. Delehaye's article from a citation in Yves Congar, "A propos des saints canonisés dans les Eglises orthodoxes," Revue des sciences religieuses, 22 (1948), 240 n. 2, who says, "On a déjà posé plusieurs fois la question de savoir comment pourrait être réglée, dans le cas d’une réunion des Eglises orthodoxes à Rome, la question du culte rendu, dans ces Eglises, aux saints morts ou canonisés depuis le schisme. L’existence de saints comparables aux nôtres dans les Eglises orthodoxes est en effet une réalité de fait et qui n’entre en conflit avec aucun principe dogmatique. Nombre de moines et d’évêques orientaux ont mené, depuis la séparation comme avant elle, une vie héroïquement sainte, et Dieu a manifesté cette sainteté par des signes. D’autres, et aussi bien des laïcs, d’humbles et candides chrétiens, sont tombés victimes de l’Islam, des Tatars ou des Turcs et sont de vrais martyrs, témoins des vérités qui sont l’essence même de la foi chrétienne."

These are the words of Hippolyte Delehaye, "Greek Neo-Martyrs," The Constructive Quarterly, IX (1921), 712:
In reading an author who has elsewhere spoken well of these neo-martyrs, I admit having been painfully impressed by the words: "It is evident that for us, Catholics, they are neither saints nor martyrs." If this simply means that the Roman Church does not celebrate them, there is nothing further to be said. But what is lacking to constitute them true martyrs? Did they die for the differences which divide us? For the errors and subtleties of their theologians? Did they even suspect that they existed? Did they not shed their blood for the truths which are the essence of our faith and for which the most illustrious martyrs of the early centuries fought? The neo-martyrs are the purest glory of the Greek Church, and before these generous witnesses to the faith which we hold in common every Christian should bow.
Cf. my post, "Heretical and schismatic false martyrs (Fr. René Hedde, O.P.)," a very rough translation of a section of the article "Martyre" by Fr. René Hedde, O.P. in the 1928 Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, 10.1:233. Above: Ahmed the Calligrapher (†5/3/1682), layman convert from Islam and new martyr under the Turkish yoke, "a favorite saint of" the Society of St. John Chrysostom of Ayatriada Rum Katoliki Kilise in Istanbul, Turkey. Ahmed the Calligrapher is not on any Catholic calendar of saints (cf. Delehaye's comment above: "the Roman Church does not celebrate them").

Tuesday, August 27, 2013

Metropolitan Macarius of Kiev (1495-1497)

Macarius certainly was Catholic prior to becoming Metropolitan, but historians contradict each other on whether he died Catholic or Orthodox.

-Bollandists 9:II:xxvi:A, §108 (50): The section header in the margin says, "Metropolita Macarius Catholicus; item Josephus," then Fr. John Stilting, S.J., says, "De hisce Koialovicius pag. 47 ita habet: Ad annum MCDXCII (apud Kulczynskium 1490) urgente Alexandro, qui, mortuo parente Casimiro rege, magnus Lithuaniæ dux renuntiatus fuerat, metropolitanus creatus est Macarius abbas Vilnesis ad sanctissimam Trinitatem, unus ex illis, quorum nomina legationi sub Misaële institutæ adscripta legimus. Macario successit Josephus Sultan è nobili inter Lisuanos familia ortus. Unitum cum fuisse evincunt litteræ illius de unione & concilio Florentino ad Niphonem Constantinopolitanum anno MCDXCVII scriptæ."
-Bollandists 10:XI:118-119 (154-155):
-Mgr. Pelesz I:476 (488):
-Mgr. Pelesz I:478-479 (490-491): "weleher als Archimandrit von Wilno das im Jahre 1476 von Misaël an Papst Sixtus IV gerichtete Schreiben unterfertigt hat. Im Jahre 1495 versammelten sich (nach der Kiewer Chronik bei Karamsin VI. N. 403) die Bischöfe: Wassian von Wladimir, Lucas von Polozk, Wassian von Turow, Jonas von Luzk, und ordinirten den Archimandriten Macarius mit dem Beinamen Cort zum Metropoliten, und schickten dann einen gewissen Dionysius und einen Mönch, German, zum Patriarchen um den Segen. Der Patriarch Niphon schickte darauf seinen Gesandten Isaph mit der Confirmationsurkunde, so wie mit Briefen an den litauischen Grossfürsten und an die Bischöfe und die Gläubigen der Kiewer Metropolie. Der Gesandte des Patriarchen verlangte aber von den ruthenischen Bischöfen, dass sie künftig zuerst um den Segen bitten, bevor sie zur Ordination des Metropoliten schreiten, was diese auch zusagten; das jetzige Verfahren aber damit entschuldigten, dass auf dieselbe Weise, d. i. ohne vorherigen Segen des Patriarchen, auch der Metropolit Gregor I Semivlac ordinirt worden war. Daraus sieht man, dass die Kiewer Metropoliten immer um die Bestätigung des Patriarchen ersuchten (Kiew. Chron. Macarius wurde auf einer Reise nach Kiew im Dorfe Skryholovy von den Tataren gefangen und enthauptet."
-Mgr. Pelesz I:572 (584): "Es werden wohl einige Beweise dafür angeführt, allein der Umstand, dass sie das Abhängigkeitsverhältniss von Konstantinopel auch damals nicht aufgegeben haben, wo sie nicht mehr zweifeln konnten, dass die griechischen in Konstantinopel residirenden Patriarchen von der Union abfielen, und die unirten Patriarchen, wie aus dem obangeführten Breve des Papstes Alexander VI an den Wilnaer Bischof Albert hervorgeht, in Rom residirten, dieser Umstand macht die Orthodoxie der Metropoliten Simeon, Jonas I und Macarius I verdächtig. Ja sogar der Metropolit Joseph Soltan, der sich dann entschieden der Union angeschlossen hat, scheint anfangs dem Schisma gehuldigt zu haben, wie aus dem eben erwähnten Breve zu ersehen ist. Joseph Soltan arbeitete eifrig an der Ausbreitung der Union, allein er wurde in seinem Wirken durch die zahlreichen am Hofe der Königin Helena lebenden schismatischen Emissäre gehindert, und als dann sein Nachfolger sich offen für das Schisma erklärte, waren allmälig auch die letzen Spuren der Union verschwunden."
-Aurelio Palmieri in 1912 Catholic Encyclopedia: Macarius was "friendly to the union." Palmieri says, "Isidor resigned the Metropolitan See of Kieff about 1458, and in the same year Pius II appointed Gregor the Bulgarian, who was a disciple and companion of the former metropolitan, and who, according to the historian Golubinski, remained united to Rome until 1470, after which he became Orthodox, and died in 1472 [note: Gregory died Catholic, according to Oscar Halecki, pages 97-98 of the work cited below, and Jan Krajcar in New Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 12, 421]. Among his successors who were friendly to the union were Mikhail Drucki (1475-80), Semion (1481-88), Jonah Glezna (1492-94), Makap (1495-97), and Josef Soltan, who in 1500 wrote a letter to Alexander VI asking for papal confirmation of his metropolitan dignity." Palmieri, Aurelio. "The Religion of Russia." The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 27 Aug. 2013.
<http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13253a.htm>.
-Blazejowskyj 181:
-Oscar Halecki, From Florence to Brest (1439-1596), 2nd. ed., (Archon Books, 1968), 108: "fifteen years later, in 1497, one of the metropolitans, the same Macarius who as Archimandrite had signed Misael's letter to Sixtus IV, wanted to visit Kiev, he was murdered by Tartar invaders." Halecki 108 n. 34 says, "See on this Metropolitan, elected in 1495, and duly confirmed by Constantinople [Kazimierz] Chodynicki, [Kosciol prawoslawny a Rzeczpospolita Polska: zarys historyczny 1370-1632], 70 f."  
-Halecki, op. cit., 111: "... in May 1947, Metropolitan Mecarius was killed by the Tartars. That former signatory of Misael's appeal to Rome does not seem to have been more favorable to reunion than his predecessor Ionas Hlezna who, in 1489, had taken Simeon's place. All three metropolitans of whose activities very little is known, were obviously satisifed with their recognition by the Patriarch of Constantinople and the Lithuanian administration." Here Halecki cites Chodynicki, op. cit., 69-70, then Halecki continues, "The new candidate, Joseph, took a different attitude, and even before he was formally appointed, in May 1498, tried to receive from the Patriarch of Constantinople himself an approval of his project to restore the Union of Florence in his ecclesiastical province." 
-Cf. Halecki 105:
-Cf. Halecki  110:
-Joseph B. Koncevicius, Russia's Attitude Towards Union with Rome (9th-16th Centuries) (Cleveland, OH: John T. Zubal, Inc. Publishers and Booksellers, 1983), 145: "Nothing is clear regarding the attitude of the next Metropolitan, Macarius, who held office but a short time." Fr. Koncevicius's footnote 109 cites Przegląd Poznański, t. 34 (1862), 161-164 and Leon Krewza, Obrona jedności cerkiewnejabo dowody, którymi się pokazuje, iż grecka cerkiew z ła-cińską ma być zjednoczona (A Defense of Church Union, or Arguments showing why the Greek Church must unite with the Latin Church) (Wilno 1617), s. 91, 92.
-Roger Aubert, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques. Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 2000-2003, vol. 28, cols. 1494-1501: "For half a century, the successors of Gregory continued to maintain relations with Rome, but in 1507 Joseph Soltan turned back to the Patriarch of Constantinople to obtain confirmation of his election, and it was the same for his successors."
-Ukrainian Wikipedia (http://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%96%D0%B9_%28%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%82%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%82_%D0%9A%D0%B8%D1%97%D0%B2%D1%81%D1%8C%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9%29): 
-http://www.religion.in.ua/main/history/13354-sproba-vidroditi-kiyivske-knyazivstvo-naprikinci-xv-storichchya.html (in Ukrainian): 
-Russian Wikipedia (http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_I_%28%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%82%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%82_%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%B5%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9%29): 
-Polish Wikipedia (http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makary_I_%28metropolita_kijowski%29): in the words of the Polish Wikipedia, Macarius of Kiev "spoke strongly against the Union of Florence," according to Antoni Mironowicz: Kościół prawosławny w Polsce (Białostockie Towarzystwo Historyczne, 2006), 187. ISBN 836045602X 
-Another source on Macarius of Kiev in Russian (concerning his participation at the wedding of Catholic Alexander and Orthodox Helen):

-Pope was Alexander VI of Rome (1492-1503)
-Greek Patriarch of Constantinople was Maximus IV (1491-1497) -Titular Latin Patriarchs of Constantinople were Jerome Lando (1474-1496) and Giovanni Michiel (1497–1503)

Wednesday, March 13, 2013

Pope Francis

May Almighty God bless the ministry of the new Pope Francis, the Supreme Pontiff and successor of St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles. May our Lord bless the pope emeritus, Benedict XVI. In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen.

Saturday, February 23, 2013

Updates 2013

Dear readers, I pray that you have been well and that God infuses you with sanctifying grace. I have been very busy over the past year working. Glory to God, I graduated from Fordham University with a B.A. in Theology in May 2012. I need your prayers so that the Holy Spirit comes to my heart and makes me holy.

Let us pray for our Holy Father Pope Benedict XVI, and let us pray that God grants us a worthy successor to him on the Throne of St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles. Let us pray for all the members of the Church Militant, the Church Suffering, and the world. Let us pray for a swift end to the clerical sexual abuse scandal, and for prompt healing of the victims in soul and body. Let us pray for widespread conversions to the Catholic faith. Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.

This blog will hopefully continue to be part of a life that will, God willing, become more balanced and God-pleasing.

Thanks be to God, most of the Dictionnaire de Théologie Catholique is available online (letters T-Z to be available in 2017, God willing). This is one of my favorite Catholic works of all time because it is so useful for apologetics and Church history. Update 9/8/2015: God willing, I will close out some of these items this fall by spending a few hours each week on the blog. Pray for me, a sinner. Before October 1, I will post a page detailing updates to old entries. These are some brief updates that are mostly related to my page called "Stances."

Pope Benedict V vs. Antipope Leo VIII

False Dimitry I 
See "Tsarevich Dimitry of Uglich Died Accidentally."

Pope Gregory VI and Simony
Today I started to transcribe the article by Denise Feytmans, "Grégoire VI était-il simoniaque?," Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire , 11 (1932 ), 130-137. After I transcribe the article, I will do a rough translation of it. Feytmans concludes (page 137), "It therefore seems prudent to admit the simony of Gregory VI without trying to find justifications or excuses." I have not yet read this article, so I don't know if it will change my mind. In any event, may the Lord lead us to the truth in this controversial matter of history. In the meantime, I believe that Gregory VI was true pope, which would not be the case if he obtained the papacy simoniacally. Click the link for citations of reliable sources that justify the following understanding of events: The wicked Pope Benedict IX (1032-1045) had become pope at age 20 and after ruling the Church for some years he wanted to marry. Benedict IX's holy godfather John Gratian wanted to rid the Church of such an unworthy pontiff, so he gave a very large sum of money to the party of Tusculum to compensate them for their interests, but "not profit Benedict IX personally" [Klaus-Jürgen Herrmann, "BENEDICT IX." The Papacy: An Encyclopedia, First Edition. Ed. Philippe Levillian, John W. O'Malley. Routledge, 2002. Religion Online. Taylor & Francis. http://www.routledgereligiononline.com:80/Book.aspx?id=w064_w064b105]. After a canonical election was observed, John Gratian reluctantly accepted the papacy and became Gregory VI (i.e., he did not plan on becoming pope, but only on making sure Benedict would step down). Later, he abdicated under pressure but voluntarily (he was not deposed) at the Council of Sutri [Dr. Warren H. Carroll, The Building of Christendom, 324-1100: A History of Christendom, vol. 2 (Royal, VA: Christendom College Press, 1987), 462-464, 469; buy this book today!]. He abdicated to avoid the scandal of an outward appearance of simony, because people then and today wrongly thought that he "bought the papacy" from his godson Benedict IX.

Pope Julius III and the Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte Scandal

Queen Ketevan of Georgia
A look at Catholic veneration of the queen.

Pope Martin IV & Michael Palaeologus
See the harsh evaluation in Carroll III:312, 315, 316-317, 321.

Metropolitan Zosimus of Moscow and Judaizing
I mistakenly reported in "Old Rome, Not New Rome" (Friday 7/16/2010) that "radical 'hatred of Rome' led Russians to install 'a Jew named Zosimas' as Metropolitan of Moscow (1490-1494) [Andrew Shipman]." I apologize for the error, and did not mean to libel Metropolitan Zosimus of Moscow. The learned Shipman was mistaken because, according to Fr. Mauricio Gordillo, S.J. in Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. Vacant et al. (1938), vol. 14, part 1, there are several good reasons (given by Nikolaĭ Petrovich Popov) to believe that Zosimus of Moscow was not a Judaizer, notwithstanding the allegations of caesaropapist and extremist Joseph of Volokolamsk.

Dr. Warren H. Carroll's Excellent A History of Christendom Series: Buy It Today!

How Catholic Saints are Different from other "Saints" - Dictionnaire de Théologie Catholique

Albert Michel's take.

Photius of Constantinople


A History of Catholicism in Romania

Symeon the New Theologian and Gregory of Sinai on Filioque

TheDailyBeast's Gallery on 15 Papal Scandals

Pope Urban VI, the True Pope: Dr. Warren Carroll's Evaluation and Definitive Proof that Urban VI and the Roman Line were the True Popes


Catholic Patriarchs and Metropolitans in the Orthodox Sees of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, Kiev and Moscow, Ohrid, and Georgia

Job of Pochayiv
I have an Orthodox book on Job of Pochayiv coming in the mail before mid-September 2015. I also plan to consult a Ukrainian book on Job () before October 1, 2015. More to come on the "Coronation of Pochaiv Icon of the Mother of God" in 1773, which is celebrated on May 1 in the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Calendar of the Archeparchy of Winnipeg. I will also give information about other Ukrainian icons Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.

John Huss
Orthodox veneration of John and takes from Old (Joseph Wilhelm) and New Catholic Encyclopedia (Paul de Vooght), Dr. Warren Carroll on the Four Articles in III:505 and the execution of Huss in III:488-490, the DTC (P. Moncelle), etc.

From the DTC, fresh data on Utraquism and abundant new Patristic citations to be added to Catholic Patristics.

Russia Was Catholic Before It Became Orthodox
Continuing my thread on the Kievan metropolitans, with a closer look at the secular rulers and some saints whom Orthodox Christians consider to have been Orthodox, but were in communion with Rome--sources consulted include Joseph B. Koncius, Oscar Halecki, Aurelio Palmieri, John Stilting, Dmytro Blazejowskyj, Maurcio Gordillo, Yves Congar, and John Meyendorff. Further details on St. Sergius of Radonezh and other post-schism saints.

St. Methodius and Filioque
-Francis Dvornik, Byzantine Missions Among the Slavs: SS. Constantine-Cyril and Methodius (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1970), ##.

St. Andrew the Apostle and the See of Constantinople
-Francis Dvornik, The Idea of Apostolicity in Byzantium and the Legend of the Apostle Andrew (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1958), ##.

St. Sava of Serbia 
Attwater, Meyendorff, and other sources. Some of the professions of Serbian rulers in Joseph Gill, Byzantium and the Papacy.

Saints Loyal to Antipopes During Great Western Schism

The Council of Pisa

Savonarola
Updates from M.-M. Gorce, Donald Weinstein, Herbert Lucas, Jourdan Hurtaud, Warren Carroll, Ludwig Pastor, Roberto Ridolfi, Pasquale Villari, K. Foster, Johann Peter Kirsch, and others.

The Sanctity of Emperors Constantine the Great & Justinian the Great
A look at Catholic and Orthodox sources. Constantine is a saint of the Catholic Church; Justinian is not.

Where Did the Blessed Virgin Mary Repose?

Post-Schism Byzantine Emperors, Patriarchs, and Orthodox Saints

Pope Sixtus IV and Stephen III the Great of Moldavia
The primary source for the former's commendation of the latter.

Translations of Fr. Martin Jugie & John Baptist Baur
I hope to translate Fr. Jugie's works: the highest priority is his work on the procession of the Holy Spirit.

Nuggets of Wisdom on Health (Nutrition, Training, Lifestyle)

Saturday, December 31, 2011

CHARITY

REMINDER: Contribute to charity FOR FREE WHILE STAYING PUT. Do this EVERY DAY.

Please report any broken links. Also go to Freerice.com now to donate 10 grains of rice for every vocabulary word you correctly define! See if you can get to level 57 like me! :-)

A partial mirror of this blog can be found here at Wordpress.

See the Anthology of William Huysman for easy navigation and indexing of posts. Click here for a convenient index of posts.

Check out my new blog, Catholic Patristics. Click here for a convenient index of posts on that blog.

Hopefully the Scriptural and Patristic catenae on this site will help you realize the truth of the following distinctively Catholic positions:

Filioque
The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father through the Son, that is, from the Father and the Son (the formulas are complementary rather than contradictory) as regards His eternal hypostatic existence, and this is no prejudice to the monarchy of the Father.

Baptism
Trine immersion is not necessary for baptism to be valid; baptism by a single immersion, sprinkling, or pouring is valid, too.

Eucharist
The use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist is perfectly valid; leavened bread is not the only valid option.

Divorce
The bond of a consummated sacramental marriage is absolutely indissoluble and second marriages are impermissible so long as the spouse is still alive.

Contraception
The use of artificial birth control methods is intrinsically mortally sinful.

Papal Infallibility
The seeds of the papal infallibility dogma defined by the Ecumenical Council of Vatican I are present in scripture and in the writings of the Church Fathers and resolutions of Ecumenical Councils held in common by Catholics and Eastern Orthodox.

Immaculate Conception
Mary the ever-virgin Theotókos never contracted original sin and never committed personal sin.

Check out the progress on the Catholic wonderworker project here.
Check out the progress on the Eastern Orthodox wonderworker project here.

Right now I'm re-doing citations in MLA format; this will take a while!

Sunday, April 17, 2011

Happy Palm Sunday 2011!

Happy Palm Sunday of the Lord's Passion 2011! May the Lord make this a great Holy Week for all. Thank you, Lord Jesus, King of the Universe, for by Your Precious Blood You have redeemed the world! Dear readers, pray for me, a sinner. I pray that you all experience an abundance of God's grace and a growth of communion with Him on this day and all the days to come, that the merciful God will bring you to the top of the Ladder of Divine Ascent! Amen.

Wednesday, April 13, 2011

The 21 Ecumenical Councils

1 - Nicaea I (325)
-
-Hefele 1.1:335–632
-president was Bishop St. Hosius the Confessor of Cordoba, who was assisted by the papal legates Priests Victor and Vincent of Rome [Henri Leclercq]
-
-
-
-
-318 bishops [Henri Leclercq]
-"Cecilian of Carthage [311-325], Mark of Calabria, Nicasius of Dijon, [and] Donnus of Stridon in Pannonia" were the only other Roman Catholic bishops present [Henri Leclercq]
-20 canons [Hefele 1.2:528–620]