Thursday, August 29, 2013

Seraphim of Sarov (1754-1833)

Bl. Pope John Paul II the Great, Crossing the Threshold of Hope (New York: Random House, 1994), 17-18: "Much has been written about prayer, and further, prayer has been widely experienced in the history of mankind, especially in the history of Israel and Christianity. Man achieves the fullness of prayer not when he expresses himself, but when he lets God be most fully present in prayer. The history of mystical prayer in the East and West attests to this: Saint Francis, Saint Teresa of Avila, Saint John of the Cross, Saint Ignatius of Loyola, and, in the East, for example, Saint Seraphim of Sarov and many others."

Louis Monden, S.J., Signs and Wonders: A Study of the Miraculous Element in Religion (New York: Desclée, 1966), ###.

Martin Jugie, A.A., Le schisme byzantin, aperçu historique et doctrinal (Paris, P. Lethielleux, 1941), 447-460, esp. 457:
En 1903, la canonisation de l’ascète Séraphin de Sarov († 1833) fut due déjà a la violenté expresse de l’empereur Nicolas II et de sa femme l’impératrice Alexandra Féodorovna, malgré un obstacle qui paraissant insurmontable. Le corps de Séraphin, en effet, n’avait pas été trouvé conservé. Or, le grande miracle qui est à l’origine de la plupart des canonisations historiques est l’incorruption du cadavre. Lorsque l’historien Golubinskii, dans l’ouvrage signalé plus haut, prétendit que cette marquée de sainteté n’était pas obligatoire, la censure ecclésiastique le mit à l’index.1 Mais sous la pression du tsar, et surtout de la tsarine, l’opposition des milieux ecclésiastiques cessa. La condamnation portée contre l’ouvrage de Goloubinskii fut levée et l’on procéda solennellement, en 1903, à la canonisation du saint anachorète, célèbre par ses exploits ascétiques, son oraison, ses visions extatiques et ses enseignements spirituels.2 Cette canonisation, qui ressemblait à un coup de force de l’autorité impériale, fit scandale en Russie. En tout cas, il faut la considérer comme une exception dans l’histoire des canonisations russes officielles.

... 1. La famille impériale attribuait des grâces de guérison déjà l’attouchement du manteau du saint anachorète. L’impératrice insista pour le faire canoniser, espérant obtenir par son intercession la naissance d’un fils. Elle put bientôt se croire exaucée. Exactement un an après la canonisation de Séraphin, elle émit au monde le tsarévitch Alexis.
Albert Michel, "Sainteté," Dictionnaire de théologie catholique (Paris, Letouzey et Ané, 1939), 14.1:####:

Aidan Nichols, O.P., Rome and the Eastern Churches (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2010), 134: "Again, Catholics of the Byzantine rite do, I believe, commemorate saints canonized by the Orthodox during the period of schism, and even dedicate parish churches to them, like the one recently erected under the patronage of Seraphim of Sarov (a nineteenth century Russian hermit) in Toronto, Canada, but I have not heard of Uniate veneration of an Orthodox saint instrumental in the making or continuance of schism, such as the fifteenth century Greek bishop Mark of Ephesus." Fr. Nichols's book was first published in 1992.

-Seraphim's conversation with Nicholas Motovilov (http://orthodoxinfo.com/praxis/wonderful.aspx):

-2007 Ruthenian Typicon for Tuesday, January 2: "In the Russian Church, the Venerable and God-bearing Father Seraphim, Wonderworker of Sarov." For more info on this Typicon, see http://web.archive.org/web/20081221115757/http://www.patronagechurch.com/Typicon/typicon.htm.

Archimandrite Lazarus Moore, An Extraordinary Peace: St. Seraphim Flame of Sarov [a.k.a. Saint Seraphim of Sarov: A Spiritual Biography] (Anaphora Press, 2009), 238-239: "But if Father Seraphim spoke of the superiority of Orthodoxy to Old Ritualism, still more did he consider it superior to Roman Catholicism. 'He urged us,' we read in the Diveyev Chronicle, 'to stand firmly for the truth of the dogmas of the Orthodox Church, giving as an example St. Mark of Ephesus who showed unshakable zeal in defense of the Eastern Catholic [Orthodox] faith at the Council of Florence. He himself gave various instructions on Orthodoxy, explaining its essence and stressing that it alone contained the truth of Christ's faith in its integrity and purity. He also gave instructions as to how to defend it.'" Ibid. 242-243, on the vision allegedly experienced "in the early 1920’s, [by someone from] a noble family of Protestants in Alsace": "'Suddenly I saw [St.] Francis [of Assisi] himself coming towards me, and with him a little old man like a patriarch, bent but radiant,' she said indicating thereby his old age and venerable appearance. He was all in white. She felt frightened, but they came quite near her and Francis said; 'My daughter, you seek the true Church. It is there, where he is. It supports everyone, and does not require support from anyone.' The white Elder remained silent and only smiled approvingly at the words of Francis. … When she visited his room to see whether he was comfortably settled, she saw there a small Icon and recognized in it the Elder whom she had seen, in her light sleep, with Francis. Astonished and alarmed she asked: 'Who is he, that little old man?' 'St. Seraphim, our Orthodox saint,' answered the workman. Then she understood the meaning of the words of St. Francis about the truth being in the Orthodox Church."

Wednesday, August 28, 2013

Metropolitan Gregory Tsamblak of Kiev (1414-1420)

-http://www.pravenc.ru/text/Григорий Цамблак.html

-Francis J. Thomson, Gregory Tsamblak - the Man and the Myths (Ghent: Ghent University, Dept. of Slavonic and East European Studies, 1998): http://books.google.com/books/about/Gregory_Tsamblak_the_Man_and_the_Myths.html?id=nNIkHQAACAAJ

-Muriel Heppell, The Ecclesiastic Career of Gregory Camblak (Verlag, 1979), 134 pp.: http://books.google.com/books/about/The_Ecclesiastic_Career_of_Gregory_Cambl.html?id=1OjDtgAACAAJ

-rival of the schismatic Metropolitan Photius of Kiev (1408-1431)


-Mgr. Julian Pelesz, Geschichte der Union der ruthenischen Kirche Mit Rome (Würzburg-Wien, 1881), vol. 1, 361-365 (PDF pages 373-377):
-In 1418 Gregory I Tsamblak submitted to Pope Martin V of Rome (1417-1431) at the 16th Ecumenical Council (Constance 1414-1418) [Joseph Gill, S.J., The Council of Florence (Cambridge University Press, 2011), 25-27].
-According to Fr. Martin Jugie, Theologia dogmatica christianorum orientalium ab ecclesia catholica dissidentium (Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 19##), vol. 4, 333, Gregory Tsamblak wrote a Catholic exposition of Our Lord's words "Thou art Peter..." (Mt 16:18):
Gregorius Tsamblacus, ex Serbia oriundus, qui metropolitan Kioviensis fuit, eodem fere sensu ac Catholici evangelicum textum Tu es Petrus interpretatur, Petrumque nuncupat fidei petram, regni clavigerum, orbis præfectum4. ...
4. Macarius Bulgakov, op. cit., t. V, p. 457-458.
-Francis Dvornik, The Slavs in European History and Civilization (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1962) 172:
-Dvornik 174:
-Dvornik 226:
-Dvornik 227:
-Oscar Halecki, From Florence to Brest (1439-1596), 2nd. ed., (Archon Books, 1968), 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 34, 37, 44:
-Dmytro Blazejowskyj, Hierarchy of the Kyivan Church (861-1990) (Ed. Univ. Cath. Ucr. Clementis Papae, Opera N. 72, Sacrum Ucrainae Millenium, No. 3.), 90-91:

-English Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregory_Tsamblak):
-Polish Wikipedia (http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grzegorz_Camb%C5%82ak):
-Ukrainian Wikipedia (http://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B3%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%96%D0%B9_%D0%A6%D0%B0%D0%BC%D0%B1%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%BA):
-Russian Wikipedia (http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B3%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%A6%D0%B0%D0%BC%D0%B1%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%BA): -Romanian Wikipedia (http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grigore_%C8%9Aamblac): -http://ziarullumina.ro/documentar/mitropolitul-grigorie-tamblac-un-adevarat-ambasador-al-ortodoxiei:

-Popes were Gregory XII (1406-1415; †1417) and Martin V of Rome (1417-1431)
-Greek patriarchs of Constantinople were Euthymius II (1410-1416) and Joseph II (1416-1439), who died a sincere Catholic [AASS 8:I:184F-186E (210-212)]
-Titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople was Jean de La Rochetaillée (1412-1423; †1437)

Greek Neo-Martyrs (Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J.)

I found Fr. Delehaye's article from a citation in Yves Congar, "A propos des saints canonisés dans les Eglises orthodoxes," Revue des sciences religieuses, 22 (1948), 240 n. 2, who says, "On a déjà posé plusieurs fois la question de savoir comment pourrait être réglée, dans le cas d’une réunion des Eglises orthodoxes à Rome, la question du culte rendu, dans ces Eglises, aux saints morts ou canonisés depuis le schisme. L’existence de saints comparables aux nôtres dans les Eglises orthodoxes est en effet une réalité de fait et qui n’entre en conflit avec aucun principe dogmatique. Nombre de moines et d’évêques orientaux ont mené, depuis la séparation comme avant elle, une vie héroïquement sainte, et Dieu a manifesté cette sainteté par des signes. D’autres, et aussi bien des laïcs, d’humbles et candides chrétiens, sont tombés victimes de l’Islam, des Tatars ou des Turcs et sont de vrais martyrs, témoins des vérités qui sont l’essence même de la foi chrétienne."

These are the words of Hippolyte Delehaye, "Greek Neo-Martyrs," The Constructive Quarterly, IX (1921), 712:
In reading an author who has elsewhere spoken well of these neo-martyrs, I admit having been painfully impressed by the words: "It is evident that for us, Catholics, they are neither saints nor martyrs." If this simply means that the Roman Church does not celebrate them, there is nothing further to be said. But what is lacking to constitute them true martyrs? Did they die for the differences which divide us? For the errors and subtleties of their theologians? Did they even suspect that they existed? Did they not shed their blood for the truths which are the essence of our faith and for which the most illustrious martyrs of the early centuries fought? The neo-martyrs are the purest glory of the Greek Church, and before these generous witnesses to the faith which we hold in common every Christian should bow.
Cf. my post, "Heretical and schismatic false martyrs (Fr. René Hedde, O.P.)," a very rough translation of a section of the article "Martyre" by Fr. René Hedde, O.P. in the 1928 Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, 10.1:233. Above: Ahmed the Calligrapher (†5/3/1682), layman convert from Islam and new martyr under the Turkish yoke, "a favorite saint of" the Society of St. John Chrysostom of Ayatriada Rum Katoliki Kilise in Istanbul, Turkey. Ahmed the Calligrapher is not on any Catholic calendar of saints (cf. Delehaye's comment above: "the Roman Church does not celebrate them").

Tuesday, August 27, 2013

Metropolitan Macarius of Kiev (1495-1497)

-Bollandists 9:II:xxvi:A, §108 (50): The section header in the margin says, "Metropolita Macarius Catholicus; item Josephus," then Fr. John Stilting, S.J., says, "De hisce Koialovicius pag. 47 ita habet: Ad annum MCDXCII (apud Kulczynskium 1490) urgente Alexandro, qui, mortuo parente Casimiro rege, magnus Lithuaniæ dux renuntiatus fuerat, metropolitanus creatus est Macarius abbas Vilnesis ad sanctissimam Trinitatem, unus ex illis, quorum nomina legationi sub Misaële institutæ adscripta legimus. Macario successit Josephus Sultan è nobili inter Lisuanos familia ortus. Unitum cum fuisse evincunt litteræ illius de unione & concilio Florentino ad Niphonem Constantinopolitanum anno MCDXCVII scriptæ."
-Bollandists 10:XI:118-119 (154-155):
-Mgr. Pelesz I:476 (488):
-Mgr. Pelesz I:478-479 (490-491): "weleher als Archimandrit von Wilno das im Jahre 1476 von Misaël an Papst Sixtus IV gerichtete Schreiben unterfertigt hat. Im Jahre 1495 versammelten sich (nach der Kiewer Chronik bei Karamsin VI. N. 403) die Bischöfe: Wassian von Wladimir, Lucas von Polozk, Wassian von Turow, Jonas von Luzk, und ordinirten den Archimandriten Macarius mit dem Beinamen Cort zum Metropoliten, und schickten dann einen gewissen Dionysius und einen Mönch, German, zum Patriarchen um den Segen. Der Patriarch Niphon schickte darauf seinen Gesandten Isaph mit der Confirmationsurkunde, so wie mit Briefen an den litauischen Grossfürsten und an die Bischöfe und die Gläubigen der Kiewer Metropolie. Der Gesandte des Patriarchen verlangte aber von den ruthenischen Bischöfen, dass sie künftig zuerst um den Segen bitten, bevor sie zur Ordination des Metropoliten schreiten, was diese auch zusagten; das jetzige Verfahren aber damit entschuldigten, dass auf dieselbe Weise, d. i. ohne vorherigen Segen des Patriarchen, auch der Metropolit Gregor I Semivlac ordinirt worden war. Daraus sieht man, dass die Kiewer Metropoliten immer um die Bestätigung des Patriarchen ersuchten (Kiew. Chron. Macarius wurde auf einer Reise nach Kiew im Dorfe Skryholovy von den Tataren gefangen und enthauptet."
-Mgr. Pelesz I:572 (584): "Es werden wohl einige Beweise dafür angeführt, allein der Umstand, dass sie das Abhängigkeitsverhältniss von Konstantinopel auch damals nicht aufgegeben haben, wo sie nicht mehr zweifeln konnten, dass die griechischen in Konstantinopel residirenden Patriarchen von der Union abfielen, und die unirten Patriarchen, wie aus dem obangeführten Breve des Papstes Alexander VI an den Wilnaer Bischof Albert hervorgeht, in Rom residirten, dieser Umstand macht die Orthodoxie der Metropoliten Simeon, Jonas I und Macarius I verdächtig. Ja sogar der Metropolit Joseph Soltan, der sich dann entschieden der Union angeschlossen hat, scheint anfangs dem Schisma gehuldigt zu haben, wie aus dem eben erwähnten Breve zu ersehen ist. Joseph Soltan arbeitete eifrig an der Ausbreitung der Union, allein er wurde in seinem Wirken durch die zahlreichen am Hofe der Königin Helena lebenden schismatischen Emissäre gehindert, und als dann sein Nachfolger sich offen für das Schisma erklärte, waren allmälig auch die letzen Spuren der Union verschwunden."
-Aurelio Palmieri in 1912 Catholic Encyclopedia: Macarius was "friendly to the union." Palmieri says, "Isidor resigned the Metropolitan See of Kieff about 1458, and in the same year Pius II appointed Gregor the Bulgarian, who was a disciple and companion of the former metropolitan, and who, according to the historian Golubinski, remained united to Rome until 1470, after which he became Orthodox, and died in 1472 [note: Gregory died Catholic, according to Oscar Halecki, pages 97-98 of the work cited below, and Jan Krajcar in New Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 12, 421]. Among his successors who were friendly to the union were Mikhail Drucki (1475-80), Semion (1481-88), Jonah Glezna (1492-94), Makap (1495-97), and Josef Soltan, who in 1500 wrote a letter to Alexander VI asking for papal confirmation of his metropolitan dignity." Palmieri, Aurelio. "The Religion of Russia." The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 27 Aug. 2013.
<http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13253a.htm>.
-Blazejowskyj 181:
-Oscar Halecki, From Florence to Brest (1439-1596), 2nd. ed., (Archon Books, 1968), 108: "fifteen years later, in 1497, one of the metropolitans, the same Macarius who as Archimandrite had signed Misael's etter to Sixtus IV, wanted to visit Kiev, he was murdered by Tartar invaders." Halecki 108 n. 34 says, "See on this Metropolitan, elected in 1495, and duly confirmed by Constantinople [Kazimierz] Chodynicki, [Kosciol prawoslawny a Rzeczpospolita Polska: zarys historyczny 1370-1632], 70 f." Halecki, op. cit., 111: "... in May 1947, Metropolitan Mecarius was killed by the Tartars. That former signatory of Misael's appeal to Rome does not seem to have been more favorable to reunion than his predecessor Ionas Hlezna who, in 1489, had taken Simeon's place. All three metropolitans of whose activities very little is known, were obviously satisifed with their recognition by the Patriarch of Constantinople and the Lithuanian administration." Here Halecki cites Chodynicki, op. cit., 69-70, then Halecki continues, "The new candidate, Joseph, took a different attitude, and even before he was formally appointed, in May 1498, tried to receive from the Patriarch of Constantinople himself an approval of his project to restore the Union of Florence in his ecclesiastical province." 
-Cf. Halecki 105:
-Cf. Halecki  110:
-Ukrainian Wikipedia (http://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%96%D0%B9_%28%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%82%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%82_%D0%9A%D0%B8%D1%97%D0%B2%D1%81%D1%8C%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9%29): 
-http://www.religion.in.ua/main/history/13354-sproba-vidroditi-kiyivske-knyazivstvo-naprikinci-xv-storichchya.html (in Ukrainian): 
-Russian Wikipedia (http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_I_%28%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%82%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%82_%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%B5%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9%29): 
-Polish Wikipedia (http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makary_I_%28metropolita_kijowski%29): in the words of the Polish Wikipedia, Macarius of Kiev "spoke strongly against the Union of Florence," according to Antoni Mironowicz: Kościół prawosławny w Polsce (Białostockie Towarzystwo Historyczne, 2006), 187. ISBN 836045602X 
-Another source on Macarius of Kiev in Russian (concerning his participation at the wedding of Catholic Alexander and Orthodox Helen):

-Pope was Alexander VI of Rome (1492-1503)
-Greek Patriarch of Constantinople was Maximus IV (1491-1497) -Titular Latin Patriarchs of Constantinople were Jerome Lando (1474-1496) and Giovanni Michiel (1497–1503)

Wednesday, March 13, 2013

Pope Francis

May Almighty God bless the ministry of the new Pope Francis, the Supreme Pontiff and successor of St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles. May our Lord bless the pope emeritus, Benedict XVI. In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen.

Saturday, February 23, 2013

Updates 2013

Dear readers, I pray that you have been well and that God infuses you with sanctifying grace. I have been very busy over the past year working. Glory to God, I graduated from Fordham University with a B.A. in Theology in May 2012. I need your prayers so that the Holy Spirit comes to my heart and makes me holy.

Let us pray for our Holy Father Pope Benedict XVI, and let us pray that God grants us a worthy successor to him on the Throne of St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles. Let us pray for all the members of the Church Militant, the Church Suffering, and the world. Let us pray for a swift end to the clerical sexual abuse scandal, and for prompt healing of the victims in soul and body. Let us pray for widespread conversions to the Catholic faith. Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.

This blog will hopefully continue to be part of a life that will, God willing, become more balanced and God-pleasing.

Thanks be to God, most of the Dictionnaire de Théologie Catholique is available online. This is one of my favorite Catholic works of all time because it is so useful for apologetics and Church history. These are some brief updates that are mostly related to my page called "Stances."

Pope Gregory VI and Simony
Today I started to transcribe the article by Denise Feytmans, "Grégoire VI était-il simoniaque?," Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire , 11 (1932 ), 130-137. After I transcribe the article, I will do a rough translation of it. Feytmans concludes (page 137), "It therefore seems prudent to admit the simony of Gregory VI without trying to find justifications or excuses." I have not yet read this article, so I don't know if it will change my mind. In any event, may the Lord lead us to the truth in this controversial matter of history. In the meantime, I believe that Gregory VI was true pope, which would not be the case if he obtained the papacy simoniacally. Click the link for citations of reliable sources that justify the following understanding of events: The wicked Pope Benedict IX (1032-1045) had become pope at age 20 and after ruling the Church for some years he wanted to marry. Benedict IX's holy godfather John Gratian wanted to rid the Church of such an unworthy pontiff, so he gave a very large sum of money to the party of Tusculum to compensate them for their interests, but "not profit Benedict IX personally" [Klaus-Jürgen Herrmann, "BENEDICT IX." The Papacy: An Encyclopedia, First Edition. Ed. Philippe Levillian, John W. O'Malley. Routledge, 2002. Religion Online. Taylor & Francis. http://www.routledgereligiononline.com:80/Book.aspx?id=w064_w064b105]. After a canonical election was observed, John Gratian reluctantly accepted the papacy and became Gregory VI (i.e., he did not plan on becoming pope, but only on making sure Benedict would step down). Later, he abdicated under pressure but voluntarily (he was not deposed) at the Council of Sutri [Dr. Warren H. Carroll, The Building of Christendom, 324-1100: A History of Christendom, vol. 2 (Royal, VA: Christendom College Press, 1987), 462-464, 469; buy this book today!]. He abdicated to avoid the scandal of an outward appearance of simony, because people then and today wrongly thought that he "bought the papacy" from his godson Benedict IX.

False Dimitry I 

Pope Julius III and the Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte Scandal

Metropolitan Zosimus of Moscow and Judaizing
I mistakenly reported in "Old Rome, Not New Rome" (Friday 7/16/2010) that "radical 'hatred of Rome' led Russians to install 'a Jew named Zosimas' as Metropolitan of Moscow (1490-1494) [Andrew Shipman]." I apologize for the error, and did not mean to libel Metropolitan Zosimus of Moscow. The learned Shipman was mistaken because, according to Fr. Mauricio Gordillo, S.J. in Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. Vacant et al. (1938), vol. 14, part 1, there are several good reasons (given by Nikolaĭ Petrovich Popov) to believe that Zosimus of Moscow was not a Judaizer, notwithstanding the allegations of caesaropapist and extremist Joseph of Volokolamsk.

Pope Martin IV & Michael Palaeologus

Dr. Warren H. Carroll's Excellent A History of Christendom Series: Buy It Today!

How Catholic Saints are Different from other "Saints" - Dictionnaire de Théologie Catholique

Photius of Constantinople

Queen Ketevan of Georgia

Pope Benedict V vs. Antipope Leo VIII

A History of Catholicism in Romania

Symeon the New Theologian and Gregory of Sinai on Filioque

TheDailyBeast's Gallery on 15 Papal Scandals

Pope Urban VI, the True Pope: Dr. Warren Carroll's Evaluation


Catholic Patriarchs and Metropolitans in the Orthodox Sees of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, Kiev and Moscow, Ohrid, and Georgia

Job of Pochayiv
More to come on the "Coronation of Pochaiv Icon of the Mother of God" in 1773, which is celebrated on May 1 in the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Calendar of the Archeparchy of Winnipeg. I will also give information about other Ukrainian icons Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.

Russia Was Catholic Before It Became Orthodox

St. Methodius and Filioque
-Francis Dvornik, Byzantine Missions Among the Slavs: SS. Constantine-Cyril and Methodius (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1970), ##.

St. Andrew the Apostle and the See of Constantinople
-Francis Dvornik, The Idea of Apostolicity in Byzantium and the Legend of the Apostle Andrew (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1958), ##.

St. Sava of Serbia 

Saints Loyal to Antipopes During Great Western Schism

The Council of Pisa

Saturday, December 31, 2011

CHARITY

REMINDER: Contribute to charity FOR FREE WHILE STAYING PUT. Do this EVERY DAY.

Please report any broken links. Also go to Freerice.com now to donate 10 grains of rice for every vocabulary word you correctly define! See if you can get to level 57 like me! :-)

A partial mirror of this blog can be found here at Wordpress.

See the Anthology of William Huysman for easy navigation and indexing of posts. Click here for a convenient index of posts.

Check out my new blog, Catholic Patristics. Click here for a convenient index of posts on that blog.

Hopefully the Scriptural and Patristic catenae on this site will help you realize the truth of the following distinctively Catholic positions:

Filioque
The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father through the Son, that is, from the Father and the Son (the formulas are complementary rather than contradictory) as regards His eternal hypostatic existence, and this is no prejudice to the monarchy of the Father.

Baptism
Trine immersion is not necessary for baptism to be valid; baptism by a single immersion, sprinkling, or pouring is valid, too.

Eucharist
The use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist is perfectly valid; leavened bread is not the only valid option.

Divorce
The bond of a consummated sacramental marriage is absolutely indissoluble and second marriages are impermissible so long as the spouse is still alive.

Contraception
The use of artificial birth control methods is intrinsically mortally sinful.

Papal Infallibility
The seeds of the papal infallibility dogma defined by the Ecumenical Council of Vatican I are present in scripture and in the writings of the Church Fathers and resolutions of Ecumenical Councils held in common by Catholics and Eastern Orthodox.

Immaculate Conception
Mary the ever-virgin Theotókos never contracted original sin and never committed personal sin.

Check out the progress on the Catholic wonderworker project here.
Check out the progress on the Eastern Orthodox wonderworker project here.

Right now I'm re-doing citations in MLA format; this will take a while!

Sunday, April 17, 2011

Happy Palm Sunday 2011!

Happy Palm Sunday of the Lord's Passion 2011! May the Lord make this a great Holy Week for all. Thank you, Lord Jesus, King of the Universe, for by Your Precious Blood You have redeemed the world! Dear readers, pray for me, a sinner. I pray that you all experience an abundance of God's grace and a growth of communion with Him on this day and all the days to come, that the merciful God will bring you to the top of the Ladder of Divine Ascent! Amen.

Wednesday, April 13, 2011

The 21 Ecumenical Councils

1 - Nicaea I (325)
-
-Hefele 1.1:335–632
-president was Bishop St. Hosius the Confessor of Cordoba, who was assisted by the papal legates Priests Victor and Vincent of Rome [Henri Leclercq]
-
-
-
-
-318 bishops [Henri Leclercq]
-"Cecilian of Carthage [311-325], Mark of Calabria, Nicasius of Dijon, [and] Donnus of Stridon in Pannonia" were the only other Roman Catholic bishops present [Henri Leclercq]
-20 canons [Hefele 1.2:528–620]

2 - Constantinople I (381)
-
-Hefele 2.1:1–48
-J. Bois in DTC 3.1:1227-1231
-successive Presidents of the Council called by the holy Emperor Theodosius I the Great (379-395) were Patriarch St. Meletius of Antioch (360-381), Archbishop St. Gregory Nazianzen the Theologian of Constantinople (Doctor; 379-381; †390), and Archbishop St. Nectarius of Constantinople (381-397)
-originally a General Council of the East; no involvement or representation of Pope St. Damasus I of Rome (366-384)
-
-
-

3 - Ephesus (431)

4 - Chalcedon (451)
-
-
-Pope St. Leo I the Great of Rome (Doctor; 440-461)
-
-
-
-
-
-27 canons

5 - Constantinople II (553)
-Mansi IX:163-658 (88-335)
-Hefele :
-J. Bois in DTC 3.1:1231-1259
-É. Amann in DTC 15.2:1268–1294

6 - Constantinople III (680-681)
-Mansi X:190-922 (101-467)
-Hefele 3.1:472–538
-J. Bois in DTC 3.1:1259-1274
-É. Amann in DTC 7.1:93-132
-Fr. Martin Jugie, A.A. in DTC 10.2:2307-2323
-
-Patriarch George I of Constantinople (679-686)
-Patriarch Peter V of Alexandria
-
-

7 - Nicaea II (787)
-
-Hefele 3.2:601–798
-G. Fritz in DTC 11.1:417-441
-
-
-

8 - Constantinople IV (869-870)
-
-Hefele 4.1:481-546
-Fr. Martin Jugie, A.A. in DTC 3:1273-1307
-E. Amann in DTC 12:1549-1582; 16:666-667
-Pope Adrian II of Rome (867-872)
-Patriarch St. Ignatius of Constantinople (847-858, 867-877)
-Patriarch Michael I of Alexandria (860-870) [AASS 6:V:84, §446 (126)] represented by Deacon Joseph [Mansi XVI:190B]
-Patriarch Nicholas II of Antioch (860-879) [AASS 7:IV:123A-C, §579-581 (153)] represented by Metropolitan Thomas of Tyre [ibid.]
-Patriarch Theodosius of Jerusalem (862-878) [AASS 5:III:xli, §180 (53)] represented by Presbyter Elijah the syncellus [ibid.]
-two of the 26 metropolitans who signed the Acts of the Eighth Ecumenical Council [Mansi XVI:190C-191D] signed the acts of the sixth session of the Robber Council of 879-880 [Mansi XVII-1:513]: Cyprian of Claudiopolis and Ignatius of Hierapolis
-

9 - Lateran I (1123)
-Mansi XXI:277-304 (148-161)
-Hefele 4.2:630-644
-F. Vernet in DTC 8.2:2628-2637
-Pope Callistus II of Rome (1119-1124) "presided in person"
-22 canons promulgated

10 - Lateran II (1139)
-Mansi XXI:523-546 (271-282)
-Hefele 5.1:721-738
-F. Vernet in DTC 8.2:2637-2644
-Pope Innocent II of Rome (1130-1143)
-

11 - Lateran III (1179)
-Mansi XXII:209-468 (118-247)
-Hefele 5.2:1086-1112
-F. Vernet in DTC 8.2:2644-2652
-Pope Alexander III of Rome (1159-1181)
-
-
-
-Latin Patriarch Amalric of Jerusalem (1158-1180) represented by Prior Peter of the Holy Sepulcher [Hefele 5.2:1087]

12 - Lateran IV (1215)
-Mansi XXII:953-1086 (490-556)
-Hefele 5.2:1316–1398
-F. Vernet in DTC 8.2:2652–2667
-Pope Innocent III of Rome (1198-1216)

13 - Lyons I (1245)
-Mansi XXIII:605-686 (303-343)
-Hefele 5.2:1633–1679
-Pope Innocent IV of Rome (1243-1254)
-Latin Patriarch Nicholas de Castro Arquato (1234–1251) [AASS 8:I:151C-F (177)]
-no involvement of Greek Orthodox Patriarch Gregory I of Alexandria (1243-1263) [J. Pargoire in 1903 DTC 1.1:796]
-Latin Patriarch Albert Rezzato of Antioch (1226–1245)
-Patriarch Berthold of Aquileia (1218-1251)
-Catholic Metropolitan Peter Akerovych of Kiev (1241-1246) came with Grand Prince St. Michael the Martyr, Wonderworker of Chernigov

14 - Lyons II (1274)
-Mansi XXIV:37-136 (25-75)
-Hefele 6.1:153–209
-F. Vernet in DTC 9.1:1361–1391
-Bl. Pope Gregory X of Rome (1271-1276) and 15 cardinals
-Titular Latin Patriarch Pantaleon Giustiani of Constantinople (1253–1278) [Hefele 6.1:168; F. Vernet in DTC 9.1:1376]
-Titular Latin Patriarch Opizo Fieschi of Antioch (1247–1292) [Hefele 6.1:168; F. Vernet in DTC 9.1:1376]
-Greek ex-Patriarch Germanus III of Constantinople (1267) [AASS 8:I:164A-165E (190-191)]
-no involvement of Greek Orthodox Patriarch Nicholas II of Alexandria (1263-1276) [J. Pargoire in 1903 DTC 1.1:796]
-Fr. Yves Congar, O.P., I Believe in the Holy Spirit III:130: "it is not possible to say that the Greek Church was really represented"

15 - Vienne (1311-1312)
-Mansi XXV:367-416 (189-213)
-Hefele 6.2:643-719
-J. Leclercq in DTC 15.2:2973-2979
-Avignon Pope Clement V of Rome (1305-1314)
-Titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, Nicholas of Thebes (1308-1331) [Mansi XXV:380CD (195)]
-Titular Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem [Mansi XXV:380E (195)]
-Patriarch of Aquileia Ottobuono of Razzi (1302-1315) [Mansi XXV:380D (195)]
-Patriarch Angelo Motonense of Grado (1310-1313) [Mansi XXV:380DE (195)]

16 - Constance (1414-1418)
-Mansi XXVII:519-1240 (269-629); appendix in Mansi XXVIII:1-976 (10-497)
-Hefele 7.1
-A. Baudrillart in DTC 3.2:1200-1224
-
-
-
-no involvement of Greek Orthodox Patriarch Athanasius IV of Alexandria (1417-1425) [J. Pargoire in 1903 DTC 1.1:796]


17 - Basel-Ferrara-Florence (1431-1445)
-
-Hefele 7.2
-A. Vogt in DTC 6.1:24-50
-Pope Eugene IV of Rome (1431-1447)
-Patriarch Joseph II of Constantinople (5/21/1416-6/10/1439), who died a sincere Catholic
-Patriarch Philotheus of Alexandria (1435-1459) represented by the future Patriarch Gregory III Mammas of Constantinople; contrary to his official biography on the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria website, there was no anti-union synod of 1443 or 1450 and Patriarch Philotheus actually sent a Letter to Pope Eugene IV of Rome in which he says that anyone who does not accept the Council of Florence is a heretic [Fr. Gill 323; Mansi XXXI-2:1703-1704 (300)]
-Patriarch Dorotheus II of Antioch (1436-1454) represented by Metropolitan Isidore of Kiev
-Patriarch Joachim of Jerusalem (1431-1450) represented by Metropolitan Dositheus of Monembasia
-no anti-union synod of 1443 [Fr. Gill 354], nor was there an anti-union synod in 1450 [Fr. Gill 376 n. 3]
-Greek Church did not officially repudiate Council of Florence until 1484 [Fr. Gill 410]

18 - Lateran V (1512-1517)
-Mansi XXXII:649–1002 (332-508)
-Hefele 8.1:339–375, 396–548
-F. Vernet in DTC 8.2:2667–2686
-Pope Julius II of Rome (1503-1513) and Pope Leo X of Rome (1513-1521)
-Titular Latin Patriarch Jacques Cortès of Alexandria (1552-1568) [F. Vernet in DTC 8.2:2675]
-Titular Latin Patriarch of Antioch [F. Vernet in DTC 8.2:2675]

19 - Trent (1545-1563)
-
-
-
-Titular Latin Patriarch Anthony Helia of Jerusalem (1558-1575) [Hefele 9.2:717]
-Patriarch Daniel Matthew Alvise Barbaro (1550-1570) [Hefele 9.2:717]
-Patriarch Giovanni Trevisano of Venice (1560-1590) [Hefele 9.2:717]
-no involvement of Patriarch Joasaph II of Constantinople (1555-1565) even though Pope Pius IV of Rome (1555-1559) invited him [Hefele 9.2:1025]
-no involvement of anti-Catholic Patriarch Joachim I Pany of Alexandria (1487-1567), though Pope Pius IV of Rome (1555-1559) invited him [Hefele 9.2:1025], since "the Alexandrian Melkites finally severed relations with Rome after the Turkish conquest of Alexandria in 1517" [G. A. Maloney in NCE I:271]
-no involvement of Patriarch Joachim IV of Antioch (1543-1576), even though Pope Pius IV of Rome (1555-1559) invited him [Hefele 9.2:1025]
-
-

20 - Vatican I (1870)
-
-

21 - Vatican II (1962-1965)
-
-
-
-
-
-

Monday, April 11, 2011

Old Rome, Not New Rome 1

This is version 3.0 (2011) of part 1 of "Why God Led Me to Rome Instead of Constantinople." May God bless you with ever-growing communion with Him and may He bless you and yours with everlasting life. May He make use of this sinner to win people over to the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church by holiness of life and sound arguments from Sacred Scripture and Tradition and right reason. May God grant this sinner the strength to show, in these posts, that Catholicism, and not Eastern Orthodoxy, is the only true and saving faith, and that the Catholic Church is the bearer of the Four Marks of the Church. Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.

Since the Eastern Orthodox Church does not have an infallible magisterium,{1} it has been unable to definitively solve issues such as the following{2}: the procession of the Holy Spirit; the nature of the primacy of the Pope; the validity of Catholic Baptism; the canon of Sacred Scripture; whether there is a real distinction in God between His essence and energy; the form of the Eucharist; the immediacy of retribution; Purgatory; and other issues.

Notes to Preface
{1} Fr. Martin Jugie, A.A. (†1954), Theologia dogmatica Christianorum orientalium ab Ecclesia Catholica dissidentium IV:525-529.
{2} Op. cit., 538-539.

A. Constantinople Not an Apostolic See

B. Heretical Patriarchs of Constantinople
Despite its share of saintly archbishops and patriarchs,{1} the see of Constantinople has been occupied by numerous heretics and even heresiarchs. Its three Arian occupants were Eusebius of Nicomedia (339-342),{2} Eudoxius of Antioch (360-370),{3} and Demophilus (370-380).{4} The semi-Arian heresiarch Macedonius (342-346, 351-360; †364){5} and the heresiarch Nestorius (428-431){6} also held the throne, as did five Monophysites: Acacius (472-489),{7} Fravitas (489),{8} Euphemius (489-495),{9} Timothy I (511-518),{10} and Anthimus I (535-536).{11} The Monothelite Patriarchs of Constantinople include the heresiarch Sergius I (610-638),{12} Pyrrhus (638-641, 654),{13} Paul II (641-653),{14} Peter (654-666),{15} and John VI (712-714).{16} Constantinople also had a series of Iconoclast Patriarchs: Anastasius (730-754),{17} Constantine II (754-766),{18} Nicetas I (766-780),{19} Paul IV (780-784),{20} Theodotus I Cassiteras (815-821),{21} Antony I Cassimatis (821-836),{22} and John VII Grammaticus (836-842).{23} Photius (877-886), whose first term was illegitimate,{24} was guilty of doctrinal innovations,{25} especially his opposition to the Filioque.{26} Cyril I Lucaris (1612, 1620-1623, 1623-1633, 1633-1634, 1634-1635, 1637-1638) was a Calvinist,{27} Cyril V (1748-1751, 1752-1757) held Anabaptist tenets,{28} and Meletius IV Metaxakis (1921-1923; †1935) was a Freemason who declared Anglican orders valid.{29}

If Catholicism is false, then even more Patriarchs of Constantinople were heretics, since they accepted distinctively Catholic dogmas (e.g., Filioque, papal primacy): John XI Beccus (1275-1282; †1297),{30} Joseph II (1416-1439),{31} Metrophanes II (1440-1443),{32} Gregory III Mammas, a renowned wonderworker (1443-1459),{33} Dionysius II (1546-1555),{34} Neophytus II (1602-1603, 1607-1612),{35} Raphael II (1603-1607),{36} Cyril II Contares (1633, 1635-1636, 1638-1639; †1640),{37} Athanasius V (1709-1711),{38} and probably others.{39}

Since 1054, there has been no "Orthodox" Pope of Rome, whereas the post-1054 Orthodox succession lines of the following autocephalous sees and Churches include multiple Catholics:
Constantinople: nine or more (to 1711)
Alexandria: three or more (to 1517)
Antioch: four or more; up to 25 (to 1724) [G. D. Gallaro in NCE IX:479]
Jerusalem: six or more (to 1503)
Kiev: 15 or more (to 1596)
Serbia: two or more (to 1321)
Bulgaria (Tarnovo and Ohrid): eight or more (to 1660)
Georgia: 15 or more (to 1240)


Notes to Section B
{29}
{30}
{31}
{32}
{33} a. Siméon Vailhé, "Constantinople, Église de," in the 1907 DTC 3.2:1402, says that "the Catholic Patriarch Gregory Mammas ... had not abdicated and ... probably had not been deposed..." According to Fr. Joseph Gill, S.J. of happy memory, there was no anti-Catholic Patriarch Athanasius II of Constantinople (1450-1453); see The Council of Florence (Cambridge, 1959), p. 376 n. 3.
b. AASS 8:I:190B-192B (216-218).
c. On the holy Gregory's reputation as a wonderworker, see his Greek biography on the Ecumenical Patriarchate website.
{34} a. Vailhé, op. cit., 1424-1425.
b.
c.
{35}
{36} a. Vailhé, op. cit., 1426.
b.
{37} a.
b.
{38} a. Vailhé, op. cit., 1432: "And concerning the Patriarch Athanasius V, we note that he was deposed in 1711, because he innovated in matters of faith and showed himself too favorable to Western ideas, that is to say to Catholicism."

C. Heretical Patriarchs of Alexandria

D. Heretical Patriarchs of Antioch

E. Heretical Patriarchs of Jerusalem

F. Alleged Counter-Examples proposed by Orthodox: Old Rome

G. The Russian Church
The first Christians of Russia were Catholic.{1} Princess St. Olga of Kiev was Catholic,{2} and so was her grandson, Grand Prince St. Vladimir I Sviatoslavich the Great.{3} From his conversion until the elevation of anti-Catholic Metropolitan Nicephorus I of Kiev (1104-1121),{4} all the metropolitans of Kiev were Catholic,{5} except for John II of Kiev (1080-1089).{6} These were St. Michael I of Kiev (988-992),{7} Leontius (992-1008),{8} John I (1019-1035),{9} Theopemptus (1035-1049),{10} Hilarion (1051-1055),{11} Ephraim I (1055-1061),{12} George (1062-1073),{13} John III (1089-1091),{14} and Nicholas I of Kiev (1097–1101).{15} Even between 1121 and the Ecumenical Council of Florence, not all the Metropolitans of Kiev were Orthodox; Catholic Metropolitans of Kiev during this time period include Clement Smoliatich (1147-1154){16} and Peter Akerovych (1241-1246){17}, and probably John IV (1164-1166).{18} There is no historical certainty that the following Metropolitans of Kiev were Orthodox: Nicetas (1122-1126),{19} Michael II (1130-1145),{20} Constantine I (1156-1159),{21} Theodore (1161-1163),{22} and Nicephorus II (1182-1198).{23} Peter of Kiev (1308-1326), who resided in Moscow starting in 1325, was Catholic for quite a while (until at least 1316),{24} but became Orthodox in 1324 at the latest.{25}

Notes to section G
{1} a.
b.
{2} a.
b.
{3} a.
b. Andrew Shipman, "St. Vladimir the Great," in the 1912 Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 15.
{4} a.
b.
{5} a. Fr. Stilting in AASS
b. Fr. Yves Congar, O.P., After Nine Hundred Years: The Background of the Schism Between the Eastern and Western Churches (Fordham University Press, 1959), p. 95, n. 7.
c. Fr. Joseph Schweigl, "Menologio graeco-slavico post annum 1054," Periodica de re morali, canonica, liturgica 3 (Rome 1941): 222.
{6}
{7}
{8} a.
b.
c. Fr. Mauricio Gordillo, S.J. in the 1938 DTC 14.1:217: the letter denouncing unleavened bread is not by Leontius of Kiev, but by a metropolitan in Bulgaria after the time of the anti-Catholic bishops Leo of Ochrid and Michael Cerularius.
d. The Popes were John XV (XVI) (985-996), Gregory V (996-999), Sylvester II (999-1003), John XVII (XVIII) (1003), and John XVIII (XIX) of Rome (1003-1009).
e. The Antipope was John Philagathus of Piacenza ("John XVI (XVII)" 997-998; †1013).
f. The Patriarchs of Constantinople were Catholic Sisinnius II (996-998) [Siméon Vailhé in 1907 DTC 3.2:1359] and Sergius II (1001-1019).
{9} a.
b.
c. The Popes were Benedict VIII (1012-1024), John XIX (1024-1032) and Benedict IX of Rome (1032-1045).
d. The Patriarchs of Constantinople were Sergius II (1001-1019), Eustathius (1019-1025), and Alexius I the Studite (1025-1043).
{10} a.
b.
c. The Popes were Benedict IX (1032-1045), Gregory VI of Rome (1045-1046; †1048), Clement II (1046-1047), Damasus II (1048), and St. Leo IX the Wonderworker of Rome (1049-1054).
d. The Antipopes were John of Sabina ("Sylvester III" 1045; †1063) and the ex-pope Benedict IX (1047-1048).
e. The Patriarchs of Constantinople were Alexius I the Studite (1025-1043) and the anti-Catholic Michael I Cerularius (1043-1058).
{11} a.
b. Fr. Congar, loc. cit.
{12} a.
b. Fr. Congar, loc. cit.
{13} a.
b. Fr. Congar, loc. cit.
c. Fr. Gordillo in op. cit., 218: the anti-Catholic letter said to be a 1072 work of Metropolitan George of Kiev is probably a 12th century work
d. The Pope was Alexander II of Rome (1061-1073).
e. The Patriarchs of Constantinople were Constantine III Leichoudes (1059-1063) and the anti-Catholic John VIII Xiphilinus (1064-1075) [AASS 8:I:127C-128D (153-154)], who frustrated an attempted reunion of the Churches in 1072 under Pope Alexander II of Rome (1061-1073) and Byzantine Emperor Michael VII Ducas (1071-1078; †1090) [Fr. Jugie I:402].
{14} a.
b. Fr. Congar, loc. cit.
{15} a.
b. Fr. Congar, loc. cit.
{16}
{17}
{18} a. Fr. Stilting, op. cit., xviii:EF, §75 (43), says "Joannes probabilius Catholicus", and according to Ignatius Kulczynski, O.S.B.M., he wrote a letter of obedience to Pope Alexander III of Rome at the command of Grand Prince Rostislav I Mstislavich of Kiev (1154, 1159–1167), whom the Eastern Orthodox commemorate on March 14 (see his OCA entry).
b. The Pope was Alexander III of Rome (1159-1181).
c. The Antipope was Guido of Crema ("Pascal III" 1165-1168).
d. The Patriarch of Constantinople was Luke Chrysoberges (1156-1169) [AASS 8:I:139C-140C (165-166)].
{19} a. Fr. Stilting says, op. cit., xviii:EF, §73 (42), that he was in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople, but it is uncertain if Nicetas was Catholic or schismatic.
b. Mgr. Pelesz I:293 (305) says, "über dessen Wirksamkeit keine Nachrichten vorhanden sind."
c. The Popes were Callistus II (1119-1124) and Honorius II of Rome (1124-1130).
d. The Patriarch was John IX Agapetus of Constantinople (1111-1134) [AASS 8:I:131D-132B (157-158)].
{20} a. Fr. Stilting says, loc. cit., that he was in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople, but it is uncertain if Michael II was Catholic or schismatic.
b. Mgr. Pelesz I:294-295 (306-307) is not clear on whether Michael II was Catholic or Orthodox.
c. The Popes were Innocent II (1130-1143), Celestine II (1143-1144), Lucius II (1144-1145), and Bl. Eugene III of Rome (1145-1153).
d. The Antipopes were Pietro Pierleoni ("Anacletus II" 1130-1138) and Gregorio Conti ("Victor IV" 1138; †1139).
e. The Patriarchs of Constantinople were John IX Agapetus (1111-1134) [AASS 8:I:131D-132B (157-158)], Leo Styppeiotes (1134-1143) [AASS 8:I:132B-133B (158-159)], and Michael II Kourkouas (1143-1146) [AASS 8:I:133C-E (159)].
{21} a. Fr. Stilting, op. cit., xviii:EF, §75 (43), says "de hisce nihil certi invenio".
b.
c. The Pope was Adrian IV of Rome (1154-1159).
d. The Antipope was Ottavio di Montecelio ("Victor IV" 1159-1164).
e. The Patriarch of Constantinople was Luke Chrysoberges (1156-1169) [AASS 8:I:139C-140C (165-166)].
{22} a. Fr. Stilting, loc. cit., says "de hisce nihil certi invenio".
b.
c. The Pope was Adrian IV of Rome (1154-1159).
d. The Antipope was Ottavio di Montecelio ("Victor IV" 1159-1164).
e. The Patriarch of Constantinople was Luke Chrysoberges (1156-1169) [AASS 8:I:139C-140C (165-166)].
{23}
{24}
{25}
{26}
{27}
{28}
{29}
{30}
{31}
{32}
{33}

H. The Serbian Church

I. The Bulgarian Church

J. The Georgian Church

K. The Photian Schism

L. The Council of Florence

Monday, March 21, 2011

Corrigenda

Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.

Dear readers, pray for me and forgive me for misleading you by my errors of scholarship.

Nicephorus the Hesychast of Mt. Athos (†1300)
I don't think the anti-Catholic monk Nicephorus the Hesychast (†1300?), an Italian who converted from Catholicism to Eastern Orthodoxy and was famous for his anti-union activities in the wake of the 14th Ecumenical Council (Lyons II in 1274), is the "Our Venerable Father Nicephor, Hegumen of the Medikion Monastery (14th Century)" for May 5 of the "official calendar of saints and commemorations for the Byzantine Ruthenian Metropolitan Church of Pittsburgh is taken from The Divine Liturgy of our Holy Father John Chrysostom (2006)." The calendar seems to list the wrong century; Nicephorus the Hesychast was an Athonite, whereas there is a St. Nicephorus of the Medikion Monastery, which is in Bithynia and not Athos, who reposed in the 815. On this St. Nicephorus see the Acta Sanctorum for May 4 from the year 1680: 5:I:500-501E (628-629). St. Gregory Palamas praised Nicephorus the Hesychast for his anti-Catholicism, yet Josyf Cardinal Slipyj must have led the Magisterium to moral certainty that Palamas died a Catholic, thought it seems that Slipyj's specific arguments are not a matter of public knowledge (though Fr. Serge Keleher of Dublin might know). Here is a rough translation of what Palamas says in Triads II:2:2, from the French translation of Fr. John Meyendorff, p. 320: "Nicephorus who confessed the true faith and therefore was condemned to banishment by the first emperor Palaeologus who adopted the thinking of the Latins, Nicephorus was of Italian origin, but acknowledged the heresy of these people, so he joined our Orthodox Church, and with the customs of his fathers, he rejects their heritage and prefers our empire to his own country..."

Photius
Did Photius die in communion with the Holy See? Previously I answered with a resounding yes, and I hope this is the case. Yet I can't really be enthusiastic about Photius anymore, in light of the observations of Fr. Venance Grumel, A.A. of happy memory in "New Light on the Photian Schism," Unitas 5 (1953), 147-148.

Saturday, March 19, 2011

Did Photius die in communion with the Holy See?

Mirror link

Hail Joseph the just, Wisdom is with you; blessed are you among all men and blessed is Jesus, the fruit of Mary, your faithful spouse. Holy Joseph, worthy foster-father of Jesus Christ, pray for us sinners and obtain divine Wisdom for us from God, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.

==========

Previously I answered with a resounding yes, and I hope this is the case. Yet I can't really be enthusiastic about Photius anymore, in light of the following observations of Fr. Venance Grumel, A.A. of happy memory in "New Light on the Photian Schism," Unitas 5 (1953), 147-148.

Did Photius die in communion with the Holy See?
The most striking result of this recent research on the Photian question is the disappearance of the presumed second Photian schism. For many people this conclusion takes the concrete form: Photius died in communion with the Holy See. Is the conclusion justified? To respond we must avoid hasty conclusions, and distinguish between the position in the eyes of the law and the conduct or personal conscience of the deposed patriarch.

We cannot pass over in silence the fact that the Council of 869 was omitted from official lists of ecumenical councils, even in the West, until the second half of the eleventh century. Dvornik has established this with great erudition, and concludes that this silence is equivalent to the annulment of the Council. But we claim that it is more reasonable to suppose that since the Council concerned itself only with a personal issue and not with any question of dogma there was no great reason for emphasizing its importance at the time, and that also it seemed diplomatic in the West to remain silent after the Photian affair was settled in 899.

If it is a question of the position of Photius in the eyes of the law, all that we can say is that Photius died in communion with the Church of Byzantium. If this was in communion with Rome at the time, the former patriarch died in communion with Rome; if it was in schism, he died in schism. We are faced with two uncertainties here—the date of Photius's death and the situation of the two Churches from the time of Formosus until the reunion council held under John IX in 899. We cannot give a reply to the main question until we can answer these two.

In regard to the personal attitude and the conscience of the ex-patriarch we are on even more difficult ground. Photius composed his two principal works against the doctrine of the Filioque after his re-establishment as patriarch under John VIII, his letter to the Archbishop of Aquilea and his Mystagoge. He was not manifesting a desire for reconciliation, and he even avoids the expression through the Son, used by the Second Council of Nicaea and current among the Greek Fathers. Would this latter have embarrassed him just as later it was to embarrass the adversaries of Johannes Beccos?

What of the genuine attitude of Photius towards the Roman Church? It is argued that he had different attitudes, and many of them, not so much against the Roman Church as against those who headed it. He spurned St. Nicholas I, he admired John VIII and Adrian III; the one had eyed him with disfavor, the other two with forgiveness. He measured the merit of those who occupied the Apostolic See by their treatment of himself. With this in mind we conclude that the question: "Did Photius die a Catholic?" is a strange one. We are even more fully convinced that in seeking a patron for works of Unity, we should not pause to consider the possibility of choosing Photius, as some others would suggest (19).

(19) Fr. Dvornik, "Photius, père du schisme ou apôtre de l’union" in Vie intellectuelle, Dec. 1945, pp. 16-28.

Friday, March 18, 2011

Heretical and schismatic false martyrs (Fr. René Hedde, O.P.)

This is a very rough translation of a section of the article "Martyre" by Fr. René Hedde, O.P. in the 1928 Dictionnaire de théologie catholique 10.1:233.

9. Heretical and schismatic false martyrs (c. XX). – We can distinguish two cases, one in which the heretic dies to defend his heresy, or one in which he dies for a doctrine common with the true faith.

The second case is more interesting, but even then the victim will not be considered a martyr, for, says Benedict XIV, though he died for the truth, he did not die for the truth given by faith, since he has no faith. At the same time he admitted in a heretic who denies a point of faith, a supernatural habitus, but informed by faith; this view is widely rejected by theologians. He who has no faith, cannot die for the faith. Benedict XIV then speaks of the heretic invincibiliter, that is to say, of he who is in his error "in good faith" and if he dies for a true point [article] of faith, can he regarded as a martyr? Benedict XIV responds with an important distinction: he will be coram Deo, but not coram Ecclesia. He will be coram Deo, provided he is habitually disposed to believe anything that would be proposed by the legitimate authority, because he is not culpable according to the word of St. John: "Si non venissem et locutus fuissem eis, peccatum non haberent," XV, 22; he would not be a martyr coram Ecclesia, which judges from the outside, and which, noting his external heresy, is reduced to speculate his internal heresy. We see how this distinction proposed by the eminent canon lawyer can give satisfaction to the most difficult [questions]. But once it is admissible to recognize as a martyr coram Deo the heretic invincibiliter who dies to defend a doctrine common with Catholic truth, does she not need to recognize him even if he dies with the same sincerity to defend an erroneous assertion that he believes belong to the Christian Credo? We see from these examples how the concept of martyrdom that, at first sight, seems very clear and sharply defined, in reality poses many questions that are difficult to answer with certainty.

Wednesday, March 16, 2011

Post-Schism Orthodox Saints (Bollandists)

I hope everyone's Lent is going well! Pray for me, a sinner.

Click here for an incomplete catalog of freely downloadable volumes of the Acta Sanctorum of the Bollandists.

Regarding the Holy Fathers of the Kiev Caves (cf. 10:XI:209 [245]) and their loyalty to Rome, and concerning Catholic veneration of post-schism Orthodox saints, see the Bollandists' learned comments in the following volumes (from authors like Frs. Ivan Martynov and Daniel Papebroch of pious memory, etc; the format is Month, Tome, Page, PDF file page # from Documenta Catholica Omnia):
*10:X:863-883 (891-911)
*10:XI:i-vii (30-37), 27 (63)

Eastern Catholics celebrate "the Synaxis of the Venerable Fathers of the Monastery of the Caves" on August 28 and/or September 28.

See also the venerable Fr. John Stilting, S.J.'s "Dissertation on the Conversion and Faith of the Russians," which talks about which Metropolitans of Kiev were Catholic and which ones were Orthodox: Acta Sanctorum 9:II:i-xxvii (25-51). Fr. Stilting, in the same volume, talks about Sts. Boris and Gleb on pp. 633-639 (741-747), and annotates their "Acts" on pp. 639-644 (747-752).

The Bollandists explicitly list the following as "Saints" (I'll include more after I get my homework done) in the columns next to their biographical entries, or as saints/blessed in their biographical entries themselves, in Acta Sanctorum, October, t. XI:

11th century
*St. Abraham of Rostov (October 29) [†1073]: 10:XI:265 (301); 10:XIII:36-51 (104-119), 926-927 (994-995)
*St. Agapetus of the Kiev Near Caves (June 1) [†1095]: 6:I:135 (221); 10:XI:144 (180)
*St. Anthony of the Kiev Far Caves (July 10) [983-1073]: 7:III:3 (53); 10:XI:174 (210)
*Sts. Damian [†1071], Jeremiah [†1070], and Matthew the Clairvoyant [†1085] of the Kiev Caves (October 5): 10:XI:242 (278)
*St. Eustratius the Martyr of the Kiev Near Caves (March 28) [†1096]: 10:XI:99 (135)
WRH: Not under AASS March 28 in 3:III:709-711D (759-761) from the year 1668.
*Bishop St. Isaiah the Wonderworker of Rostov (May 15) [†1090]: 10:XI:129 (165)
WRH: St. Isaiah not under AASS for May 15 from the year 1680 in 5:III:438-441 (532-535).
*Bishop St. Leontius the Wonderworker of Rostov (May 23) [†1073]: 10:XI:137-138 (173-174)
WRH: Not under AASS May 23: 5:V:233-235 (475-477) from year 1685.
*Abbot St. Nikon of the Kiev Far Caves (March 23) [†1088]: 10:XI:96 (132)
WRH: Not under AASS March 23 in 3:III:440-442 (490-492) from the year 1668.
*St. Parasceva Petca the New of Tarnovo (October 14) [†11th. c.]: 10:VI:62(90),66(94),68(96); 10:XI:246-247 (282-283)
WRH:
*Philothea of Tarnovo (December 7) [†1060], "whose relics are in Arges, Romania": 10:XI:301-302 (337-338)
*St. Stephen, abbot of the Kiev Caves and Bishop of Vladimir in Volhynia (April 27) [†4/27/1094]: 10:X:875A (893), 880B (908), 883A (911); 10:XI:116 (152)
WRH: Not under AASS April 27 in 4:III:473C-475F (511-513) from the year 1675, and not listed as saint (with †) in 10:X:956 (984) from year 1861.
*Sts. Theodore and Basil the Martyrs of the Kiev Near Caves (August 11) [†1098]: 8:II:607C (635); 10:XI:198 (234)
*St. Theodosius of the Kiev Far Caves (May 3) [†1074]: 5:I:360 (486); 10:XI:121-122 (157-158), 200-201 (236-237)
WRH: On the loyalty of St. Theodosius of the Kiev Far Caves to the Apostolic See, consult 10:X:880E (908), from the year 1861. Fr. Mauricio Gordillo, S.J. of happy memory says in the 1938 DTC 14.1:218: St. Theodosius Pechersky did not write against the Latins because he "remained faithful to Iziaslav when he displayed his Catholic faith by sending his son Yaropolk to implore the aid of Pope Gregory VII in Rome and put Russia under the protection of Saint Peter."

12th century
*St. Anastasius the Monk-Martyr of the Kiev Near Caves (January 22) [†late 12th century]: 10:XI:50 (86)
WRH: Not under AASS for January 22, from the year 1643: 1:II:388-389 (418-419).
*Anthony the Roman of Novgorod (August 3) [1067-1147]: 10:XI:46 (82), 193 (229)
WRH: Abbot Anthony, whom Orthodox hagiographers portray as fleeing persecutions of Roman Catholics, is not under AASS August 3 in 8:I:196-198 (498-500) from the year 1733.
*St. Arethas of the Recluse of the Kiev Near Caves (October 24) [†1190]: 10:X:xi (13), 863-877 (891-905); 10:XI:259-260 (295-296)
*King David III of Georgia (January 26) [1089-1125]: 10:XI:53-54 (89-90)
WRH: Not under AASS January 26 in 1:II:690-691 (720-731) from the year 1643.
*Dionysius of Kiev (June 26) [†1182]: 6:V:246-247 (462-463)
*St. Erasmus of the Kiev Near Caves (February 24) [†1160]: 10:X:866D (894), 874D (902); 10:XI:79-80 (115-116)
WRH: Not under AASS February 24 in 2:III:428-430F (466-468) from the year 1658, and not listed as saint (with †) in 10:X:933 (961) from year 1861.
*St. Euphrosyne of Polotsk (May 23) [†1173]: 5:V:234 (476); 10:XI:138 (174), 244 (280)
*Bishop Hilarion of Meglin, Bulgaria (October 21) [†1164]: 10:IX:405-408 (447-450); 10:XI:253-257 (289-293)
*St. John the Long-Suffering of the Kiev Near Caves (July 18) [†1160]: 7:IV:346F-347A (530-531); 10:XI:181 (217)
*Archbishop John of Novgorod (September 7) [†1186]: 10:XI:219 (255)
WRH: Not under AASS September 7 in 9:III:1-5E (73-77) from the year 1750.
*St. Nestor the Chronicler of the Kiev Near Caves (October 27) [1050-1114]: 10:XI:261-262 (297-298)
WRH: In AASS October 27 in 10:XII:181 (215) from the year 1867.
*St. Nicetas the Stylite, Wonderworker of Pereyaslavl (May 24) [†1186]: 10:XI:139 (175)
WRH: Not under AASS May 24: 5:V:269-272 (511-514) from year 1685, and not listed as saint (with †) in 10:X:948 (976) from year 1861.
*St. Pimen the Much-Ailing of the Kiev Near Caves [†1139]: 10:XI:195 (231)
WRH: Not under AASS August 7 in 8:II:180C-184E (208-212) from the year 1733.
*St. Prochorus of the Kiev Near Caves (February 10) [†1103]: 10:XI:67 (103)
WRH: Not under AASS February 10 in 2:II:377-379F (415-417) from the year 1658.
*Sts. Spyridon and Nicodemus the Prosphora-Bakers of the Kiev Near Caves (October 31) [†1148]: 10:X:864 (892), 874 (902); 10:XI:267 (303)
WRH: Not under AASS October 31 in 10:XIII:683-687 (751-755) from the year 1883.
*Stephen Nemanya of Serbia, a.k.a. Simeon the Myrrh-Gusher of Mt. Athos (February 13) [†1200]: 10:XI:71-73 (107-109)
WRH: Not under AASS February 13 in 2:II:642-644 (680-682) from the year 1658.
*St. Titus the Presbyter of the Kiev Near Caves (February 27) [†1190]: 10:XI:81 (117)
WRH: St. Titus is not under AASS February 27 from year 1658: 2:III:671-673E (709-711).

13th century
*Abbess St. Parasceva of Polotsk (October 28) [†1239]: 10:XI:262-264 (298-300), 277 (313); 10:XII:420 (454)
WRH: In 1273 Bl. Pope Gregory X of Rome (1271-1276) canonized St. Parasceva of Polotsk, who reposed in Rome in 1239.
*Peter (David) and Febronia (Euphrosyne), Wonderworkers of Murom (June 25) [†1228]: 10:XI:158-159 (194-195)
WRH: In AASS June 25 in 6:V:2E (218), 111 (327) from the year 1709.
*Archbishop St. Saba I of Serbia (January 14) [1169-1234]: 1:I:979-983 (1063-1067); 10:XI:39 (75), 42-44 (78-80)
*Bishop Simon of Vladimir and Suzdal (May 10) [†1226]: 10:X:956 (984); 10:XI:125 (161)
WRH: Not under AASS May 10 in 5:II:490C-494E (536-540) from the year 1680.

14th century
*Metropolitan Alexis of Kiev and Moscow (February 12) [r. 1354-1378; omitted from Russian Catholic calendar in 1940]: 2:II:639-641 (677-679); 10:XI:70-71 (106-107)
*Sts. Anthony, John, and Eustace of Vilnius (April 14) [†1342]: 4:II:265 et seq. (?); 10:XI:109 (145), 310 (346)
*Bishop James of Rostov (November 27) [†1392]: 10:XI:290 (326)
*John the New of Suceava (June 2) [†1330]: 6:I:263-264 (349-350); 10:XI:145 (181)
WRH: Gregory Tsamblak (Metropolitan of Kiev 1414-1420), who attended the 16th Ecumenical Council (Constance 1414-1418) and was Catholic according to AASS 9:II:xxii:E, §94 (47), described the martyrdom of John.
*Peter of Korish, a mid-14th century hermit of Serbia (November 25): 10:XI:289 (325)
*Metropolitan Peter of Kiev (December 21) [r. 1308-1326; omitted from Russian Catholic calendar in 1940]: 10:XI:313-314 (349-350)
*St. Sergius the Wonderworker of Radonezh (September 25) [1314-1392]: 9:VII:3-4 (39-40); 10:XI:234-235 (268-269)
*St. Stephen the Enlightener of Perm (April 26) [1340-1396]: 10:XI:115 (151)
WRH: Cf. the brief notice in AASS April 26 in 4:III:408C (446) from the year 1675.

15th century
*Andrew the New Martyr of Chios (May 29) [†1465]: 5:VII:184-188 (294-298); 10:XI:143 (179)
WRH:
*Abbot Dionysius of Glushitsa, Vologda (June 1) [†1437]: 6:I:135 (221)
WRH: Not listed as saint in 10:XI:145 (181) from the year 1864.
*Monk Joannicius of Devich (November 4) [†1430]: 10:XI:270 (306)
*Metropolitan Macarius the Hieromartyr of Kiev (May 1) [r. 1495-1497]: 10:XI:118-119 (154-155)
WRH: Not under AASS May 1 from the year 1680.

16th Century
*Despotina (Princess) Angelina Brancovich of Serbia (July 30) [†7/30/1520]: 10:XI:226 (190)
WRH: Not under AASS July 30 in 7:VII:127-130D (159-162) from the year 1731.

17th century
*Luarsab II of Georgia (June 21) [†1622]: 10:XI:157 (193)
WRH: Not under AASS June 21 in 6:IV:64-66 (98-100) from year 1707.

*Nestor the Silent (April 26) [?]: 4:III:424 (462)

The Bollandists mention St. Michael of Chernigov in 10:XI:71 (107), 85 (121). In 9:VI:105E (from the year 1757) they say: "Michael, princeps Zernichoviensis, aut Czernioviensis, et Theodorus ejus famulus memorantur hodie in Ephemeridibus Moscorum figuratis. At non conflat nobis, Catholici ne fuerint an schismatici. Non coli tamen apud Catholicos, habemus ex notitiis Polonicis." See also 5:I:xxxxiv (60), from the year 1680.